Presentation on theme: "1 Voice over IP Signaling: H.323 and Beyond Communications Magazine, IEEE Volume 38, Issue 10, Oct. 2000 Page(s):142 - 148 Reporter: ssu-han wang."— Presentation transcript:
1 Voice over IP Signaling: H.323 and Beyond Communications Magazine, IEEE Volume 38, Issue 10, Oct Page(s): Reporter: ssu-han wang
2 OUTLINE INTRODUCTION AN H.323 NETWORK THE H.323 ARCHITECTURE H.323 SIGNALING AND CONTROL H.323 INTERWORKING WITH THE PSTN SUMMARY
3 INTRODUCTION(1/2) Signaling is one of the most important fun- ctions in the telecommunications infra- structure. VoIP industry has gone through three stages in terms of signaling protocol evolution: precommercial (1980 – 1995), PC-centric (1995 – 1998),and carrier grade (1998 on).
4 INTRODUCTION(2/2) H.323 v. 1, referred to as a standard for realtime videoconferencing over non- guaranteed quality of service (QoS) LANs. call control resides in one box, called the media gateway controller,and media transformation resides in another box called the media gateway.
5 An H.323 network
6 THE H.323 ARCHITECTURE(1/2) Terminal An H.323 TE is an endpoint in the network, which provides for real-time two-way communications with another H.323 terminal, GW, or MCU. Gatekeeper The GK is an H.323 entity in the network that provides address translation and controls access to the network for H.323 terminals, GWs, and MCUs
7 THE H.323 ARCHITECTURE(2/2) Gateway An H.323 GW is an endpoint in the network that provides real-time two way communications between H.323 TEs on the packet-based network and ter- minals on the PSTN. Multipoint control unit The MCU is an endpoint in the network that provides the capability for three or more terminals and GWs to participate in a multipoint conference.
8 H.323 SIGNALING AND CONTROL(1/2) Registration Admission and Status (RAS) RAS is a transaction-oriented protocol between an H.323 endpoint (usually a TE or GW) and a GK. Q.931 Q.931 is the signaling protocol for call setup and teardown between two H.323 TEs and is a variation of the Q.931 protocol defined for PSTN.
9 H.323 SIGNALING AND CONTROL(2/2) H.245 H.245 is used for connection control Real-Time Transmission Protocol RTP is used as the transport protocol for packetized VoIP in H.323.
10 Protocol relationships in H.323
11 The seven phases of an H.323 call
12 Two call control models are supported in H.323 direct call model In the direct call model, all Q.931 and H.245 signaling messages are Exchanged directly between the two endpoints. GK-routed call In the GK-routed call model, all signaling messages are routed through the GK cloud.
13 The direct and gatekeeper- routed call models of H.323
14 H.323 INTERWORKING WITH THE PSTN PSTN interfaces VoIP interfaces Signaling conversion Media transformation
15 Components of a gateway bridg- ing the PSTN and the Internet
16 H.323 gateways have the following limitations Scalability The maximum number of lines an H.323 GW can support is a few thousand. SS7 connectivity Without SS7 connectivity,VoIP cannot provide the same rich set of services. Availability When a GW is down, all active calls through the GW disappear. There was no mechanism in H.323 for failover.
17 HOW TO OVERCOME(1/2) Scalability use one MGC to control multiple MGswe have in effect built a virtual H.323 GW that can handle more lines. SS7 connectivity This can be done by connecting the SG function to the SS7 network.
18 HOW TO OVERCOME(2/2) Availability multiple MGCs can be used to control a single MG. If one MGC fails, but call states are kept in stable storage, one can apply traditional failover procedures to switch to another MGC.
19 FUNCTIONAL DECOMPOSI- TION OF H.323 GATEWAYS Signaling gateway (SG) Provides the signaling mediation function between the IP and PSTN domains. Media gateway (MG) It maps or transcodes the media in the IP domain and media in the PSTN domain Media gateway controller (MGC) Provides the call processing (callhandling)
20 The ESTI-TIPHON functional decomposition reference model
21 SUMMARY H.323 was the first VoIP standard that helped move the VoIP industry away from proprietary solutions and toward interoperable products. It is unclear how the VoIP signaling architecture will eventually evolve, but it is clear that these different signaling protocols will need to coexist for some time.