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1 A Background Paper on Bangladesh Fisheries Md. Ferdous Alam Madan Mohan Dey.

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Presentation on theme: "1 A Background Paper on Bangladesh Fisheries Md. Ferdous Alam Madan Mohan Dey."— Presentation transcript:

1 1 A Background Paper on Bangladesh Fisheries Md. Ferdous Alam Madan Mohan Dey

2 2 BANGLADESH The country is bounded by India in the north and west; by the Bay of Bengal in the south, and finally by part of India and Myanmar in the eastern side. The total area of the country is 147,570 sq km (56,977 sq. miles). A wide portion of land is covered by large rivers such as the Padma, the Jamuna, the Teesta, the Meghna, the Brahmaputra, and the Surma. There are also thousands of tributaries with a total length of about 24,140 km. These rivers are connected to the Bay of Bengal.

3 3 FISHERIES RESOURCES 1.Inland Open-waters : 4047316ha 84.75% (capture fishery) 2. Inland closed-water : 528390ha 15.25% (culture fishery) Total inland area : 4575706 ha 100.00% 3. Marine water :166,000 sq km

4 FISHERIES POTENINTIAL Fisheries have huge potential Have one of the highest man-water ratio in the world (at 20 persons per ha of watet area) Available sunlight and temperature throughout the year is an added advantage for fish production Water fertility is conducive to fish growth

5 5 FISH AND FISHERIES Fish and fisheries are an integral part of the life of Bangladeshi Fish is a natural complement in the diet of Bangladeshi Fish supplies 58% of animal protein 13 million people are involved for livelihood 73% of rural household are involved in freshwater aquaculture and floodplains Fisheries contribute: 4.64% to the GDP 23.00% to agricultural GDP, and 5.10% to foreign exchange earning

6 6 INLAND OPEN-WATERS (CAPTURE FISHERY) Environment Water Area (ha) i. Rivers and Estuaries 853,863 (21.10%) ii. Sundarban (water resources in forest) 177,700 (4.38%) iii. Beel (deepest part of the floodplain) 114,161 (2.82%) iv. Kaptai lake 68,800 (1.70%) v. Floodplain 2,832,792 (70.00%) Total inland open-waters 4,047,316

7 7 Inland closed-water (culture fishery ) Environment Water Area (ha) i. Ponds and ditches 30 5,205 (57.76%) II Baor (ox-bow lake for hydro electricity generation) 5,488 (1.04%) iii. Shrimp Farms (freshwater and Brackish water) 217,877 (41.23%) Total inland closed-waters 528,390

8 8 Marine waters Environment Water Area i. Coastal Area 2.30 million ha ii. Coast line (along the Bay of Bengal) 710 km iii. Exclusive Economic Zone (EEZ)200-mile Total Marine Water (including EEZ)166,000 sq km

9 9 Fish Production (2008-09) Inland capture fisheriesProduction (ton) Productivity (Kg/ha) i. Rivers and estuaries 138,160 162 ii. Sundarban 18,462 104 iii. Beel 79,200 694 iv. Kaptai lake 8,590 125 v. Floodplain 879,513 310 Total 1,123,925 (41.61%) Inland culture fishery i. Ponds and ditches 912,1782991 ii. baor 5,038 918 iii. Shrimp/prawn farm 145,585 668 Total 1,062,801 (39.61%) Marine Fisheries 514,644 (19.05%) Country Total2,701,370


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12 12 Fish production from inland culture sources

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15 15 Fish Production Growth (1983-84 to 2008-09) FisheryExponential growth rate (%) Rank A. Inland capture fishery 3.78 i. Rivers and estuaries-1.489 ii. Sundarban 4.645 iii. Beels2.708 iv. Kaptai Lake4.287 v. Floodplain6.344 B. Inland culture Fishery9.69 i. Ponds9.632 ii. Baor7.483 iii. Shrimp farms 10.371 C. Marine Fishery4.34 i. Industrial fishery4.596 ii. Artisanal4.287 Total (all fisheries)5.61

16 16 Fish Biodiversity There are 300 species of fish and 20 species of prawns in Bangladesh. The most common species is ilish (national fish) 60 native and 13 exotic species of fish and 20 species of shrimp in inland freshwaters. The major and minor indigenous carps are (katla, rohu, mrigel and kalbasu) and (bata, reba, nandin and gonia). Introduced exotic species are silver carps, grass carp, bighead carp, black carp, common carp, silver barb, Tilapia and Mahseer Indigenous carps (Rohu, Catla and Mrigal) and one exotic carp (silver carp) accounts for about 74% of pond production. Other major cultures species in Bangladesh include the grass carp, common carp, tilapia and Pangas.

17 17 Threat to Biodiversity Number of freshwater species is declining at an alarming rate with some species, in recent years, having become extinct. According to the Red Book figure, about 54 freshwater species are critically or somewhat endangered in the country. Among them 14 species are listed as critically endangered; 27 as endangered and 14 s vulnerable (IUCN, 2000). Overfishing, rapid extraction of fish seed and broodstock, destructive and unregulated fishing practices, pollution, introduction of exotic species, loss of aquatic habitat due to siltation, dam construction, and other anthropogenic activities have been the major causes of fish species loss.

18 18 Intensity of technology use TechnologyIntensityTechnollogyIntensity Mixed culture of carps IE, SISorpunti cultureIE Integrated Fish Culture IE, SIPangas cultureIE Composite culture of carps and freshwater prawn IE, SIGaldaIE Culture of TilapiaIE, SIBagdaE, SI Culture of Exotic magur IE, SI, I Fish culture in cagesSI, I Fish cultutre in PenIE

19 19 Processing and export No. of Fish processing plant: 133 Most of them are in Khulna and Chittagong Capacity far outstrips supply (18-20% capacity utilization) Product sale comprises 72% unprocessed (frozen whole) product, 24% prepared/preserved and 4% other products (frozen freshwater fish) Main markets are USA (40%), EU (UK, Netherland, Belgium, Germany) 39% Demand is strong for Bagda and Golda Freshwater fish are exported for expatriate Bangladeshi communities

20 20 Fisheries Export Year Total export (tons) Total value (Million Taka) % of total export earning 1999-003939118115.66.28 2000-013898820327.55.77 2001-024148216371.44.76 2002-034737119415.95.10 2003-045414123634.75.71 2004-056337725712.25.90 2005-066882930298.44.56 2006-077370433528.94.90 2007-087529933962.84.04 2008-097288832434.13.00

21 21 Fisheries Export Trend

22 Export of fish and fish products 2008-09 Export items Qty (ton) % of total Frozen shrimp/prawn5036869.103 Live fish0.30.000 Frozen fish1929426.471 Dryfish3410.468 Salted &dehydrated fish840.115 Turtle/Tortoise, crab & eel12171.670 Shark fin and Fish Maws2760.379 Others13081.795 All items72888.3100.000

23 23 A Generalized Marketing Channel Collection center/rural market within the fishing area. Operated by collectors PRIMARY MARKET First landing and distribution center near thana headquarters or vital communication points. Market operated by commission agents called aratdars SECONDARY MARKET Second landing & distribution center in cities/towns. Operated by commission agents called aratdars HIGHER SECONDARY MARKET Retail marketing. Paikars sell to retailers FINAL CONSUMING MARKET Sub-urban retailing Urban retailing Rural retailing

24 24 Domestic Marketing Channel (Public sector) Consumers Retailers Aratdars Beparies` Brokers BFDC

25 25 Market Channel and Share (culture fish) Consumer Paiker/ Retailer Aratdar Bepari Fish Farmer Nikari 82.85% Home Consumption 7.15% 10% 75.6% 92.85%

26 26 Marketing profit of frozen and dryfish (Taka/Kg) MarketsMajor frozen species Minor frozen species Processing plants for frozen /dry species Primary9.436.56 Secondary3.144.06 Consumer13.538.49 All market26.1019.1398.94 / 90.12 Ahmed (2009) showed that total marketing margin of tilapia is 31%: 5% (primary market), (15%) secondary market and (11%) retail market

27 27 Producers share to consumer price AuthorProducer share(%)Species types Rahman (2009)40-45Freshwater Fish Khan (1995)45.60, 83.44Freshwater Fish Islam (1997)59.63, 65.11shrimp Mia (1996)56Marine fish Ahmed (1983)51-63 60-63 Freshwater and marine species Marine species Ahmed (2007)55Hilsha Ahmed (2009)69Tilapia

28 28 Data availability Fisheries data are generated mainly by three organizations: 1. Department of Fisheries : This publication provides details of production statistics by fisheries resources, species, districts, upazilas and export statistics of fish and fish products. Unfortunately, the publication does not provide any information of fish prices. 2. Department of Agricultural Marketing : DAM maintains retail prices, wholesale prices and growers prices of different markets under upazillas and districts of different divisions. 3. Bangladesh Bureau of Statistics : BBS produces annual price statistics of some selected fish species in its annual publications, Yearbook of Statistics and Statistical Pocket Book of Bangladesh.

29 29 Market/marketing Review of Studies Marketing studies of crops are plenty Fish marketing studies are very scanty Most fish marketing studies are conducted in BAU Most studies relate to kind of price spread and marketing margin Few market integration studies exist that are methodologically very shallow (correlation approach) Most studies are done with limited sample No representative structure-conduct-performance type study exists Supply chain, value chain and price spread type studies are confusing No existence of studies related to price transmission and price linkage across different market levels

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