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Non Prescription Drugs Course Instructor Pr. Dr Hanaa Elsaghir Course Instructor Pr. Dr Hanaa Elsaghir Text : Handbook of Nonprescription Drug latest edition.

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Presentation on theme: "Non Prescription Drugs Course Instructor Pr. Dr Hanaa Elsaghir Course Instructor Pr. Dr Hanaa Elsaghir Text : Handbook of Nonprescription Drug latest edition."— Presentation transcript:

1 Non Prescription Drugs Course Instructor Pr. Dr Hanaa Elsaghir Course Instructor Pr. Dr Hanaa Elsaghir Text : Handbook of Nonprescription Drug latest edition Publisher (American Pharmaceutical Association) Text : Handbook of Nonprescription Drug latest edition Publisher (American Pharmaceutical Association) Grating: Quizzes and assignment(5), med.( 5), Final (20) Grating: Quizzes and assignment(5), med.( 5), Final (20) Lectures Saturday and monday (10 -12) Lectures Saturday and monday (10 -12) Office hours Every day ( 12 – 13 ) Office hours Every day ( 12 – 13 ) Email helsaghir@ksu.edu.sa Email helsaghir@ksu.edu.sahelsaghir@ksu.edu.sa

2 COURSE OUTLINES Introduction to skin functions and anatomy Introduction to skin functions and anatomy Skin diseases and OTC products for their treatment Skin diseases and OTC products for their treatment Acne Acne Dandruff, seborrhea, psoriasis and dry skin Dandruff, seborrhea, psoriasis and dry skin Diaper Rash and Eczema Diaper Rash and Eczema Burn, Sunburn, sun screen agents Burn, Sunburn, sun screen agents Parasitic diseases, pediculosis and scabies, Parasitic diseases, pediculosis and scabies,

3 Skin Anatomy and function The skin is the largest organ of the body The skin is the largest organ of the body made up of a thin outer layer (called the epidermis) and a thicker inner layer (called the dermis). made up of a thin outer layer (called the epidermis) and a thicker inner layer (called the dermis). Below the dermis is the subcutaneous tissue, which contains fat. Buried in the skin are nerves that sense cold, heat, pain, pressure, and touch. Below the dermis is the subcutaneous tissue, which contains fat. Buried in the skin are nerves that sense cold, heat, pain, pressure, and touch. Sebaceous glands secrete a lubricating substance called sebum. Sebaceous glands secrete a lubricating substance called sebum. Deep within the skin are your sweat glands, which produce perspiration when you are too hot. Deep within the skin are your sweat glands, which produce perspiration when you are too hot. Skin is damages easily with various factors Skin is damages easily with various factors 1- mechanically ; by cut, burns, bites and stings. 1- mechanically ; by cut, burns, bites and stings. 2-chemicaly; by detergents and organic solvents. 2-chemicaly; by detergents and organic solvents. 3- biologically ; by microorganisms. 3- biologically ; by microorganisms. 4- even dermatological preparations intended to be applied on skin e.g. cosmetics, can harm the skin in susceptible persons. 4- even dermatological preparations intended to be applied on skin e.g. cosmetics, can harm the skin in susceptible persons.

4 Skin structure

5 Skin functions MechanicalProtectiveSocial

6 Mechanical function Its provided mainly by the dermis Its provided mainly by the dermis Our skin is elastic but with age, it wrinkles and becomes more rigid. Our skin is elastic but with age, it wrinkles and becomes more rigid. Tissues require about 10 to 20 % of moisture to act as a plasticizer Tissues require about 10 to 20 % of moisture to act as a plasticizer The thin horny layer is strong and depends in its pliability ( elasticity ) on a correct balance of lipids, water soluble hygroscopic substances and water. The thin horny layer is strong and depends in its pliability ( elasticity ) on a correct balance of lipids, water soluble hygroscopic substances and water.

7 Protective function *. Microbiological barrier( Stratum corneum provides a microbiological barrier by ) 1- sloughing of squamous epithelial tissue with their adhering microorganisms 2- Acid mantle ( pH of the skin surface 4.5 – 5.5. acidic nature of the skin is called the acid mantle. Microbes grow better at pH 6 to 7.5 3- Sebum ingredients which secreted by the sebaceous glands ( free fatty acids) have fungicidal and bactericidal properties; such as caprylic and caproic fatty acids.

8 * Chemical Barrier: skin limits the passage of different chemicals into and out the body. * Chemical Barrier: skin limits the passage of different chemicals into and out the body..stratum conium is very impermeable to chemicals and is the rate limiting step in percutaneous absorption..stratum conium is very impermeable to chemicals and is the rate limiting step in percutaneous absorption. * Radiation Barrier:ultraviolet light of 290- 400nm is the most damging. ( light stimulates melanocytes to produce melanin which particularly protect the skin * Radiation Barrier:ultraviolet light of 290- 400nm is the most damging. ( light stimulates melanocytes to produce melanin which particularly protect the skin Heat barrier and temperature regulation Heat barrier and temperature regulation Electrical barrier Electrical barrier

9 Social function Skin express emotions such as the pallor and sweating during fear Skin express emotions such as the pallor and sweating during fear It has characteristics particular for mane's. color, hair, odor and texture. It has characteristics particular for mane's. color, hair, odor and texture. Sensory experiences such as mediation of sensation of heat, cold, touch Sensory experiences such as mediation of sensation of heat, cold, touch, vibration and pain, vibration and pain

10 Composition of the skin 1- The epidermis Stratum germinativum being the innermost layer Stratum germinativum being the innermost layer Stratum cornium being the outermost layer which is composed of flat scaly dead tissue ( keratinized), constantly shed. It may be 10 micron thick when dry but swells several fold in water. The impermeable nature of this dead, dense layer is very important in controlling the percutaneous absorption of drugs. Stratum cornium being the outermost layer which is composed of flat scaly dead tissue ( keratinized), constantly shed. It may be 10 micron thick when dry but swells several fold in water. The impermeable nature of this dead, dense layer is very important in controlling the percutaneous absorption of drugs. 2- The dermis 2- The dermis 3- the subcutaneous tissue- 3- the subcutaneous tissue-

11 Skin appendages Hair follicles( develop over all skin except the red part of the lips, the palm and soles, and parts of the sex organs Hair follicles( develop over all skin except the red part of the lips, the palm and soles, and parts of the sex organs Sebaceous glands, holocrine produce sebum from cell disintegration. Abnormal sebaceous activity may lead to seborrhea, obstruction of the pilosebaceous canal may lead to comedones and acne Sebaceous glands, holocrine produce sebum from cell disintegration. Abnormal sebaceous activity may lead to seborrhea, obstruction of the pilosebaceous canal may lead to comedones and acne Sweat glands ( eccrine sweat glands and apocrine glands Sweat glands ( eccrine sweat glands and apocrine glands Nails Nails

12 What is sebum Sebum is the product of sebaceous glands. It is a, mixture of fatty substances that cover the surface of the skin, consisting of free fatty acids (mainly palmitic and oleic ) triglycerides, waxes, cholesterol and traces of fat soluble vitamines. Sebum is the product of sebaceous glands. It is a, mixture of fatty substances that cover the surface of the skin, consisting of free fatty acids (mainly palmitic and oleic ) triglycerides, waxes, cholesterol and traces of fat soluble vitamines. Function of sebum: Function of sebum: 1- surface barrier to the loss of moisture from the skin 1- surface barrier to the loss of moisture from the skin 2- it prevents penetration of the skin by other substances 2- it prevents penetration of the skin by other substances 3- it has some antiseptic and anti fungal properties. 3- it has some antiseptic and anti fungal properties.

13 Non prescripion drugs It is called an OTC drug since it pass without prescription Over The Counter. It is called an OTC drug since it pass without prescription Over The Counter. The FDA defines OTC drug as a drug for which directions for safe use by the public can be written. It does not necessarily follow that these drugs without danger. Danger might arise from ; The FDA defines OTC drug as a drug for which directions for safe use by the public can be written. It does not necessarily follow that these drugs without danger. Danger might arise from ; Misdiagnosis, adverse drug reaction, adverse drug –drug ite raction, or toxicity upon miss use. Misdiagnosis, adverse drug reaction, adverse drug –drug ite raction, or toxicity upon miss use. It is the pharmacist s responsibilities to : It is the pharmacist s responsibilities to : 1- help the patient if the problem need medical attention 1- help the patient if the problem need medical attention 2- assist the patient who does not require professional medical assistance in choosing the most suitable course of treatmentr 2- assist the patient who does not require professional medical assistance in choosing the most suitable course of treatmentr 3-recommend the best available OTC product of the effective drug 3-recommend the best available OTC product of the effective drug


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