Presentation on theme: "Shadows over the Pacific: East Asia Under Challenge 21."— Presentation transcript:
Shadows over the Pacific: East Asia Under Challenge 21
The Qing Empire
Decline of the Manchus Opium and Rebellion British problems with China The opium trade Reactions by China Lin Zexu (Lin Tse-hsu; ), 1839 The Opium Wars ( ) Concessions to Britain Taiping (Tai ping) Rebellion, ) Hong Xiuquan (Hung Hsiu-chuan) Causes of the rebellion
Efforts at Reform Self-strengthening Adoption of Western technology combined with the retention of Confucian principles and institutions Proponents of more radical reform Wang Tao (Wang Tao) (1828 – 1897)
Foreign Possessions and Spheres of Influence About 1900
The Climax of Imperialism Russia, France, and Britain penetrate China Sino-Japanese War, Emperor Guangxu (Kuang Hsu) Kang Youwei (Kang Yu-wei) Empress Dowager Cixi (Tzu Hsi) Opening the Door to China United States Open Door policy Boxer Rebellion, 1900
Collapse of the Old Order Commission formed to study constitutional changes, 1905 Election for a national assembly, 1910 New provincial elite Rising rural unrest Reforms do little for the peasants, artisans, miners, transportation workers Sun Yat-sen ( ) Revive China Society Revolutionary Alliance Three Peoples Principles of nationalism, democracy, and peoples livelihood Revolt of October, 1911 General Yaun Shikai (Yaun Shih-kai) Revolution or collapse of the old order?
Chinese Society in Transition Obstacles to industrialization Traditional methods of production Little use of Western technology Rapid increase in the population led to smaller plots of land and tenant farmers Impact of imperialism on the economy Western presence accelerated Chinese development Daily life Changes in coastal cities Increased Western cultural presence Education Women Impact of missionaries
A Rich Country and a Strong State: The Rise of Modern Japan Isolation Emergent commercial and manufacturing center Tokugawa feudalistic system falling apart Factionalism and corruption plaguing the central bureaucracy An End to Isolation Commodore Matthew C. Perry, 1853 Treaty of Kanagawa Townsend Harris, 1858 Sat-Cho alliance, 1863 Rebel armies attacked shoguns palace at Kyoto in 1868 and proclaimed the authority of the emperor who had agreed to end cooperation with the West
Meiji Restoration Transformation of Japanese Politics Abolish remnants of the old order and strengthen the executive Charter Oath, 1868 Political parties develop Meiji Constitution of 1890 Meiji Economics Land reform Japans industrial revolution Impact of changes on the rural population Building a Modern Social structure Military structure Education Changing culture Civil Code, 1898 Women
Joining the Imperialist Club Conflict with China Ryukyu Islands Korea opens ports to Japan Sino-Japanese rivalry over Korea Treaty of Shimonoseki Russo-Japanese War, 1904 Korea annexed in 1908
Japanese Culture in Transition Japan invited technicians, engineers, architects, and artists from Europe and United States Tokyo School of Fine Arts
The Meiji Restoration: A Revolution from Above Some historians argue it was an incomplete revolution because it did not end economic and social inequalities Others argue it did put Japan on a path of economic and political development A conservative revolution Combination of kokutai and capitalism
Discussion Questions How did opium help the British force concessions from the Chinese? What steps did the Chinese take to block European domination of China? Why did these measures fail? How did the presence of European powers in China shape Chinese cultural development? Was the Meiji Restoration a revolution?