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Shadows over the Pacific: East Asia Under Challenge

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1 Shadows over the Pacific: East Asia Under Challenge
21 Shadows over the Pacific: East Asia Under Challenge

2 The Qing Empire

3 Decline of the Manchus Opium and Rebellion British problems with China
The opium trade Reactions by China Lin Zexu (Lin Tse-hsu; ), 1839 The Opium Wars ( ) Concessions to Britain Taiping (T’ai p’ing) Rebellion, ) Hong Xiuquan (Hung Hsiu-ch’uan) Causes of the rebellion

4 Efforts at Reform Self-strengthening
Adoption of Western technology combined with the retention of Confucian principles and institutions Proponents of more radical reform Wang Tao (Wang T’ao) (1828 – 1897)

5 Foreign Possessions and Spheres of Influence About 1900

6 The Climax of Imperialism
Russia, France, and Britain penetrate China Sino-Japanese War, Emperor Guangxu (Kuang Hsu) Kang Youwei (K’ang Yu-wei) Empress Dowager Cixi (Tz’u Hsi) Opening the Door to China United States’ “Open Door” policy Boxer Rebellion, 1900

7 Collapse of the Old Order
Commission formed to study constitutional changes, 1905 Election for a national assembly, 1910 New provincial elite Rising rural unrest Reforms do little for the peasants, artisans, miners, transportation workers Sun Yat-sen ( ) Revive China Society Revolutionary Alliance Three People’s Principles of nationalism, democracy, and people’s livelihood Revolt of October, 1911 General Yaun Shikai (Yaun Shih-k’ai) Revolution or collapse of the old order?

8 Chinese Society in Transition
Obstacles to industrialization Traditional methods of production Little use of Western technology Rapid increase in the population led to smaller plots of land and tenant farmers Impact of imperialism on the economy Western presence accelerated Chinese development Daily life Changes in coastal cities Increased Western cultural presence Education Women Impact of missionaries

9 A Rich Country and a Strong State: The Rise of Modern Japan
Isolation Emergent commercial and manufacturing center Tokugawa feudalistic system falling apart Factionalism and corruption plaguing the central bureaucracy An End to Isolation Commodore Matthew C. Perry, 1853 Treaty of Kanagawa Townsend Harris, 1858 Sat-Cho alliance, 1863 Rebel armies attacked shogun’s palace at Kyoto in 1868 and proclaimed the authority of the emperor who had agreed to end cooperation with the West

10 Meiji Restoration Transformation of Japanese Politics Meiji Economics
Abolish remnants of the old order and strengthen the executive Charter Oath, 1868 Political parties develop Meiji Constitution of 1890 Meiji Economics Land reform Japan’s industrial revolution Impact of changes on the rural population Building a Modern Social structure Military structure Education Changing culture Civil Code, 1898 Women

11 Japanese Overseas Expansion During the Meiji Era
©2004 Wadsworth, a division of Thomson Learning, Inc. Thomson Learning™ is a trademark used herein under license.

12 Joining the Imperialist Club
Conflict with China Ryukyu Islands Korea opens ports to Japan Sino-Japanese rivalry over Korea Treaty of Shimonoseki Russo-Japanese War, 1904 Korea annexed in 1908

13 Japanese Culture in Transition
Japan invited technicians, engineers, architects, and artists from Europe and United States Tokyo School of Fine Arts

14 The Meiji Restoration: A Revolution from Above
Some historians argue it was an incomplete revolution because it did not end economic and social inequalities Others argue it did put Japan on a path of economic and political development A “conservative revolution” Combination of kokutai and capitalism

15 Discussion Questions How did opium help the British force concessions from the Chinese? What steps did the Chinese take to block European domination of China? Why did these measures fail? How did the presence of European powers in China shape Chinese cultural development? Was the Meiji Restoration a “revolution”?

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