3Decline of the Manchus Opium and Rebellion British problems with China The opium tradeReactions by ChinaLin Zexu (Lin Tse-hsu; ), 1839The Opium Wars ( )Concessions to BritainTaiping (T’ai p’ing) Rebellion, )Hong Xiuquan (Hung Hsiu-ch’uan)Causes of the rebellion
4Efforts at Reform Self-strengthening Adoption of Western technology combined with the retention of Confucian principles and institutionsProponents of more radical reformWang Tao (Wang T’ao) (1828 – 1897)
5Foreign Possessions and Spheres of Influence About 1900
6The Climax of Imperialism Russia, France, and Britain penetrate ChinaSino-Japanese War,Emperor Guangxu (Kuang Hsu)Kang Youwei (K’ang Yu-wei)Empress Dowager Cixi (Tz’u Hsi)Opening the Door to ChinaUnited States’ “Open Door” policyBoxer Rebellion, 1900
7Collapse of the Old Order Commission formed to study constitutional changes, 1905Election for a national assembly, 1910New provincial eliteRising rural unrestReforms do little for the peasants, artisans, miners, transportation workersSun Yat-sen ( )Revive China SocietyRevolutionary AllianceThree People’s Principles of nationalism, democracy, and people’s livelihoodRevolt of October, 1911General Yaun Shikai (Yaun Shih-k’ai)Revolution or collapse of the old order?
8Chinese Society in Transition Obstacles to industrializationTraditional methods of productionLittle use of Western technologyRapid increase in the population led to smaller plots of land and tenant farmersImpact of imperialism on the economyWestern presence accelerated Chinese developmentDaily lifeChanges in coastal citiesIncreased Western cultural presenceEducationWomenImpact of missionaries
9A Rich Country and a Strong State: The Rise of Modern Japan IsolationEmergent commercial and manufacturing centerTokugawa feudalistic system falling apartFactionalism and corruption plaguing the central bureaucracyAn End to IsolationCommodore Matthew C. Perry, 1853Treaty of KanagawaTownsend Harris, 1858Sat-Cho alliance, 1863Rebel armies attacked shogun’s palace at Kyoto in 1868 and proclaimed the authority of the emperor who had agreed to end cooperation with the West
10Meiji Restoration Transformation of Japanese Politics Meiji Economics Abolish remnants of the old order and strengthen the executiveCharter Oath, 1868Political parties developMeiji Constitution of 1890Meiji EconomicsLand reformJapan’s industrial revolutionImpact of changes on the rural populationBuilding a Modern Social structureMilitary structureEducationChanging cultureCivil Code, 1898Women
12Joining the Imperialist Club Conflict with ChinaRyukyu IslandsKorea opens ports to JapanSino-Japanese rivalry over KoreaTreaty of ShimonosekiRusso-Japanese War, 1904Korea annexed in 1908
13Japanese Culture in Transition Japan invited technicians, engineers, architects, and artists from Europe and United StatesTokyo School of Fine Arts
14The Meiji Restoration: A Revolution from Above Some historians argue it was an incomplete revolution because it did not end economic and social inequalitiesOthers argue it did put Japan on a path of economic and political developmentA “conservative revolution”Combination of kokutai and capitalism
15Discussion QuestionsHow did opium help the British force concessions from the Chinese?What steps did the Chinese take to block European domination of China? Why did these measures fail?How did the presence of European powers in China shape Chinese cultural development?Was the Meiji Restoration a “revolution”?