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Fluke LPQI 2007 1. Fluke LPQI 2007 2 Fluke Corporation Corporate Headquarters near Seattle, WA, USA European Headquarters Eindhoven, the Netherlands.

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Presentation on theme: "Fluke LPQI 2007 1. Fluke LPQI 2007 2 Fluke Corporation Corporate Headquarters near Seattle, WA, USA European Headquarters Eindhoven, the Netherlands."— Presentation transcript:

1 Fluke LPQI

2 Fluke LPQI Fluke Corporation Corporate Headquarters near Seattle, WA, USA European Headquarters Eindhoven, the Netherlands

3 Fluke LPQI Fluke Corporation Founded in basement of John Flukes home in Springdale, Connecticut, USA in ,400 employees worldwide Offices in 21 countries around the world Distributed in more than 100 countries Manufacturing facilities in Everett (USA), the Netherlands, the U.K. and China

4 Fluke PDM seminar Module 1 4 Measurements for Power Quality maintenance

5 Fluke LPQI Industry trends 1)Growing concern for personal safety -complexity of todays systems, bring over voltage risks -international & national regulations (& guidance) 2)Increased attention on power related issues -deregulation of power distribution -Increasing loads on power systems 3)Shift from reactive maintenance to preventive maintenance –More work by fewer people –Decreasing maintenance budget –More complex equipment

6 Fluke LPQI Network Test Scope Meters Loop Cal. Clamp Meter DMM Simple Testers PQ Analyzers IR Temperature Insulation testers 20 years ago… –The primary goal of maintenance was loss prevention and the fundamental requirement was to provide the basic need at minimum cost. Today… –Companies are researching all possible means to extend the productive life Tool use by application* Scheduled TREND Reactive Preventive Predictive Thermal Imaging Ultrasonic testing Vibration Analyzers Recorders/Loggers Motor/Circuit Test Oil Testers History of Maintenance Practices

7 Fluke LPQI Reactive Maintenance Repair it when it fails Preventive Maintenance Maintenance at regular intervals Predictive Maintenance Problem detected before predicted failure. Maintenance planned ahead Break-down Time Cost Time Cost Time Cost Types of Maintenance

8 Fluke LPQI Power Quality Effects of bad power quality are not immediately obvious Bad power quality can come from anywhere Consequences could be severe (production loss) Power quality problems are a root cause: –Malfunction –Shutdown –Excessive energy cost –Decreased lifetime of equipment

9 Fluke PDM seminar Module 1 9 Example

10 Fluke LPQI Example This manufacturer is the third biggest power consumer of the local energy supplier. They produce fiber materials for sports equipment. A new heating system was installed on a key process During a routine check with a thermographic camera it was discovered there had been an increase in temperature of the neutral conductor. Check with a current clamp revealed 20A Phase currents & 40A Neutral current

11 Fluke LPQI Example A power quality logger was used to gather the needed data. Connection was only possible on the distribution board connection, fused with 250A, not at the heater due to safety reasons. This makes analysis a bit more complex since the heater represents a small part of the total load

12 Fluke LPQI Results Question: Why does the neutral carry 60A and not only 6A which would be the difference between currents in L1, L2 and L3? Current trend Neutral current

13 Fluke LPQI Results 2 Conclusion; there is a third harmonic present in the neutral

14 Fluke LPQI Conclusion Further analysis showed that: The reason for the neutral conductor overload clearly is the heating installation, which generates high triplen harmonics More unbalances present so further more measurements would be very helpful. What was the cause? Regulators built into the heating system require harmonic filters which were not installed 10A fund 35A 3rd

15 Fluke LPQI Conclusion Thermal survey gives early warning of a problem Addition of new equipment can introduce problems which are not obvious or visible Performing system check before and after can prevent future failures Balanced loads still can have harmonic content running in the neutral

16 Fluke PDM seminar Module 1 16 Measurement of Electrical Systems

17 Fluke LPQI Measurement 1.Safety 2.Power Quality Measurement The effect of distortion on simple test tools Measurement of Harmonics Measurement Specifications Typical measurements 3.Power Quality Measurement Equipment Basic Measurements Test equipment types

18 Fluke LPQI Measurement 1.Safety 2.Power Quality Measurement The effect of distortion on simple test tools Measurement of Harmonics Measurement Specifications Typical measurements 3.Power Quality Measurement Equipment Basic Measurements Test equipment types

19 Fluke LPQI Safety of Measurement Example –DMM fitted with low energy fuse used incorrectly on a high energy circuit

20 Fluke LPQI Implemented in 1998 All instruments have to be tested by an independent test house (2004) Each instrument must be marked with an Overvoltage Category ( CAT I, II, III, IV ) As well as a voltage level (300, 600, 1000 Volts) EN61010 LV Directive

21 Fluke LPQI Category Rating CAT IV - Electricity meters and primary connection CAT III - Permanent connection to the fixed installation. CAT II - Appliances, portable tools etc. CAT I - Protected electronic circuits.

22 Fluke LPQI Voltage Rating per Category Test Impulse Rating

23 Fluke LPQI IEC 1010 / EN61010 Regulations are not an option Second edition EN61010 ( 2004 ) requires independent testing Remember Test leads are CAT rated...

24 Fluke LPQI Available from Fluke Free Safety DVD Not sales focused Information on EN61010 Interview with an arc blast survivor

25 Fluke LPQI Measurement Seminar 1.Safety 2.Power Quality Measurement The effect of distortion on simple test tools Measurement of Harmonics Measurement Specifications Typical measurements 3.Power Quality Measurement Equipment Basic Measurements Test equipment types

26 Fluke LPQI = Harmonics Distorted waveforms Harmonic frequencies combine with the fundamental sine wave to form non-sinusoidal (distorted) waveforms.

27 Fluke PDM seminar Module 1 27 Effect of distortion on test tools

28 Fluke LPQI Measurement Methods Both Clamp Meters are calibrated and functioning correctly 59.2 A AC 59.2 A AC 40.5 A AC 40.5 A AC

29 Fluke LPQI How does a measurement device measure the effective value of a waveform ? Two Methods - Averaging & True RMS Measurement Sinewave

30 Fluke LPQI Effective (RMS) value = 1.11 X Average value. Averaging Measurement

31 Fluke LPQI Non-linear Loads Switching Power Supply Volts Amps What happens to the measurement device if the waveform is distorted by non-linear loads ?

32 Fluke LPQI Effective (RMS) value = 1.85 x Average value. An averaging measurement device (1.11 x) would read up to 40 % too low. AVG RMS Measurement Distorted Waveform

33 Fluke LPQI Nuisance tripping at 60A ? 59.2 A AC 59.2 A AC 40.5 A AC 40.5 A AC True RMS Measurement Averaging Measurement

34 Fluke LPQI A True RMS meter calculates the effective heating value of the distorted waveform This will include all harmonics True RMS Measurement True RMS / Harmonics

35 Fluke LPQI Peak value = X RMS value = Crest Factor. Crest Factor

36 Fluke LPQI Peak value = 2.9 X RMS Value. 2.9 = Crest Factor. RMS Pea k Crest Factor Distorted Waveform

37 Fluke LPQI Professional Multimeters usually rated at CF <3 High Quality units rated at CF of 6 Power Quality Analyzer CF >11 C.F. = 1.43C.F. = 2.39C.F. = 4.68 Crest Factor Distorted Waveforms

38 Fluke LPQI Power Measurement Screen Shots from a Fluke 43 Single Phase and a Fluke 434 Three Phase analyser Two Power Factors

39 Fluke LPQI Power Measurement System with no Harmonic content True Power (W) Reactive power (kVAr) Cos φ (dpf) = true power (fundamental) Apparent power (kVA)

40 Fluke LPQI Power Measurement System with Harmonic content True Power (W) Reactive power (kVAr) Reactive power (Harmonic component) Cos φ (dpf) : true power/Reactive power (fundamental) PF: true power/reactive power (incl harmonics) Apparent power including harmonics (kVA)

41 Fluke LPQI Power Measurement Screen Shots from a Fluke 43 Single Phase and a Fluke 434 Three Phase analyser Two Power Factors !

42 Fluke LPQI Measurement where Harmonics are present 1.Always use True RMS 2.Check the crest factor rating 3.When measuring power be aware of PF vs Cos φ/(DPF) C.F. = 1.43C.F. = 2.39C.F. = 4.68

43 Fluke PDM seminar Module ) Measurement of Harmonics

44 Fluke LPQI EN50160 Harmonics Upper limits for individual harmonic voltages at the supply terminals in % of nominal voltage. 95% of 10-minute average Vrms over 1 week must be below limits Odd harmonicsEven Harmonics Not multiples of 3Multiples of 3 Order h Relative voltageOrder h Relative voltageOrder h Relative voltage 56 %35 %22 % 75 %91.5 %41 % %150.5 %6…240.5 % 133 %210.5 % 172 % % % % VIRTUALLY ALL HARMONIC PROBLEMS ARE GENERATED IN HOUSE

45 Fluke LPQI IEC specification Test Equipment Class A Class B Measurement IntervalAccuracy Power frequencyHz10 sec± 10mHz Manufacturer to indicate Magnitude supply voltageVrms10 cycles± 0.1%Manufacturer to indicate Flicker (IEC )Plt2 hr ± 5%Manufacturer to indicate Voltage dips, swells and interruptions, rapid voltage changes ½ cycle Vrms10 ms± 0.2%½ cycle Vrms Unbalance (method of symmetrical components) Vrms fundamental10 cycles± 0.15% (uncert.) Manufacturer to indicate Harmonics (IEC )THD, Harm V, A, Inter harmonics 10 cycles± 1-5%Manufacturer to indicate Transients (not specified)V peak50 μ sec (200KS/s) Mains signalingInter harmonic10 cycles± 1-5%Manufacturer to indicate FlaggingDip, swells, interruptions might create unreliable readings of Hz, Vrms, Unbalance and Harm. Therefore Must be re flagged (dirty) to avoid miss interpretation Not specified Time synchronizationExternal clock; GPS 1 periodManufacturer to indicate

46 Fluke LPQI Harmonic Measurement For troubleshooting –Check the harmonics present –Check for the levels of the harmonics –Look for recognizable patterns 50 Hz100 Hz150 Hz 200 Hz

47 Fluke LPQI Harmonic Measurement – PC Load V, A, Hz Measurement Harmonic Measurement 3rd Harmonic Content

48 Fluke LPQI Harmonic Measurement PC / IT Load 6 Pulse Bridge 12 Pulse Bridge Elec. Fluorescent Lighting Ballast

49 Fluke LPQI Measurement Seminar 1.Safety 2.Power Quality Measurement The effect of distortion on simple test tools Measurement of Harmonics Measurement Specifications Typical measurements 3.Power Quality Measurement Equipment Basic Measurements Test equipment types

50 Fluke LPQI Types of Measurement Tools 1.Power Quality Troubleshooting / Survey tools –Devices designed as a measurement tool –Simple to use / Immediate measurements –Troubleshooting / Survey tool / some logging 2.Power Quality Logging –Devices designed for long term monitoring –Record every parameter for detailed analysis –Predictive Maintenance

51 Fluke LPQI Power Quality Troubleshooting & Surveys Measurements 1.Volts Amps & Frequency 2.Power 3.Harmonics 4.Dips & Swells 5.Transients 6.Unbalance 7.Flicker 8.Inrush 9.Temperature

52 Fluke LPQI ) Volts, Amps & Frequency Using a Power Quality Analyser View all of the main parameters at point of connection Graphical as well as numeric display can help highlight potential problems Scope Vector Trend

53 Fluke LPQI ) Power Measurement Typical power measurement information Shows the sides of the triangle

54 Fluke LPQI ) Three Phase Harmonic Measurement

55 Fluke LPQI ) Transient Measurement Cause….. interference Difficult to capture –Triggering of scopes difficult… width, timing, peak value ? Modern power quality analyzers purpose built for the job Envelope trigger Accurate real time stamping is essential 240V +X% - X%

56 Fluke LPQI ) Dips and Swells Recording of upstream and downstream sags can indicate loads causing problems Upstream SagDownstream Sag

57 Fluke LPQI ) Unbalance The phase diagram gives a quick indication of phase relationships and balance In this example voltage unbalance is very small, but current unbalance is nearly 19%.

58 Fluke LPQI ) Flicker Measurements A reading greater than 1 means that most people will perceive flicker in an incandescent bulb Measurement –Pst (1 min): Short-term flicker over 1 minute –Pst: Short-term flicker over 10 minutes –Plt: Long-term flicker over 2 hours

59 Fluke LPQI ) Inrush Inrush Current Measurement –Momentary peak of current during switch on. –Current clamps can capture peak reading –Analyzers can give time measurement Screen Shot of a PQA showing start-up current generated by a cooling system Three Phase Inrush Measurement

60 Fluke LPQI ) Temperature Many power quality problems initially result in an increase in temperature of components, connectors, cables and machinery Infra red non contact measurement is the ideal way to locate this type of problem

61 Fluke LPQI Why infrared non-contact measurement? 1) Measurement from distance Dangerous to contact (Electrical) Difficult to reach Moving objects 2) Measurement without contact Very hot objects Where contact would damage, contaminate or change temperature (Food & Chemical)

62 Fluke LPQI Example Substations

63 Fluke LPQI Substations Both qualitative and quantitative inspections are Required to determine a fault

64 Fluke LPQI Electrical connections The connections on this evaporator pump read over 50 degrees hotter on phase 3

65 Fluke LPQI Electrical connections The temperature readouts show that connection on the centre phase of this main lighting disconnect are hot, suggesting an unbalanced load

66 Fluke LPQI Electrical connections

67 Fluke LPQI Electrical unbalance or overload?

68 Fluke LPQI Electrical unbalance or overload? Where is the increased resistance? On the left or on the right contact? A hot spot is not necessarily a faulty connection!

69 Fluke PDM seminar Module 1 69 Fluke Power Quality

70 Fluke LPQI Single Phase Troubleshooting Fluke 345 Power ClampFluke 43B Analyzer

71 Fluke LPQI Three Phase Troubleshooting Fluke 435 Power Quality Troubleshooter Fluke 1735 Power Logger

72 Fluke LPQI Power Quality Logging Fluke 1740 Series Power Quality Logger Fluke 1760 Power Quality Logger

73 Fluke LPQI Thermal Imaging FlukeTi20 Thermal Imaging Camera FlukeTi40 & Ti50 Advanced Cameras

74 Fluke LPQI More information Fluke Power Quality Data available in the exhibition area DVDs –Thermal Imaging Application DVD –Safety DVD – EN61010 –Power Quality Measurement DVD Fluke Website –www.fluke.co.ukwww.fluke.co.uk Short term requirement ?

75 Fluke PDM seminar Module 1 75


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