Presentation on theme: "Fire Service Pre – Incident Planning"— Presentation transcript:
1 Fire Service Pre – Incident Planning “Before We Respond”Peter Vlahos, LieutenantBloomfield Twp. Fire Department (MI)
2 ObjectiveTo gain a basic understanding of the importance and purpose of pre-incident planning and how to conduct a thorough pre-incident inspection of a given target hazard in his/her community.In this presentation we will be looking at specific firefighter fatality cases from NIOSH that may have had an alternative outcome if pre-incident plans, and other factors, were more thorough.
3 Overview Purpose of pre-incident planning National Fire Protection Association (NFPA) 1620 Recommended Practice for Pre-Incident PlanningTypes and uses of pre-incident plansSteps for conducting pre-incident plansNational Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) Firefighter Fatality Cases – Reported and Pending
4 Purpose of Pre-incident Planning Pre-incident Plan- A systematic method of gathering and recording facts for the purpose of problem identification / analysis and information retrieval.
5 Purpose of pre-incident planning cont. Reasons for Pre-incident planning:Identify target hazards in the communityIdentify problem areas requiring built-in-systems to reduce life and property lossesFire sprinkler systemEarly warning detection – smoke detectorsCompartmentalization – smoke doors1. Target Hazards such as: Nursing homes, hospitals, schools, factories, day cares, religious/worship centers, shopping centers/mallsIdentify problem buildings: When conducting walk-throughs of buildings for preplanning, identifying the need for life safety systems on older buildings.
6 Purpose of pre-incident planning cont. 3. Identify Fire Department Limitations4. Access to right information at right time5. Aids in speed of decision making6. Reduces guesswork based on lack of or poor information.Identify Fire Department Limitations: Staffing issues, apparatus resources, water supply, mutual aidAccess to right information: Location of pertinent fire department controls such as utilities, FDC/Standpipe locations, or water supplies.Aids in speed of decision making: Having information will allow command officers to make more concise and quicker decisionsReduces guesswork: Works alongside #5. Having accurate, up to date information will take guess work out of it. Our firefighter’s safety is at stake, no room for guessing.
7 National Fire Protection Association (NFPA) 1620 - Recommended Practice for Pre-Incident Planning: Recommended practice which addresses the protection, construction, and operational features of specific occupancies to develop pre-incident plans for use by responders to manage fires and other emergencies using available resources. Pre-incident planning involves evaluating the protection systems, building construction, contents, and operating procedures that can impact emergency operations.
8 Types and uses of pre-incident plans Types of Pre-incident plans:Hazards to firefighters – a written description of inherent dangers to firefightersHazardous materialsBuilding ConstructionShafts/drop-offs, etc.Hazardous Materials: Knowing what hazardous chemicals are in the building and where they are located is crucial for firefighter safety.Building Construction: Construction of building will aid the Incident Commander in their firefighter tactics. Wood frame, lightweight truss, balloon construction, etc., are all important factors when deciding tactics and strategies of a burning building.Shafts / drop offs: Elevator shafts, loading docks and other areas that are hazardous to our firefighters can be noted on the pre- incident plan for the Incident Commander.
9 Types and uses of pre-incident plans cont. 2. Floor plan – detailed interior diagram, including:Each floorLocation of Fire Protection SystemsUtility / maintenance rooms : Gas, electric, waterFloor Plan:Each floor must be included on the pre-incident plan. The IC will need to know this information for the safety of the firefightersLocation of Fire Protection Systems: Fire alarm control panel (FACP) to locate the location of fire, fire suppression riser room location to shut down system to reduce water damage. Knowing the location of these rooms will assist us in quick response to the problem.Utilities: These rooms are very important. Unlike a home, there may be numerous electrical and gas shutoffs in a commercial building. These utility/maintenance rooms are crucial to the safety of the firefighters during an emergency operation.
10 Types and uses of pre-incident plans cont. 3. Plot plan – drawing that displays an outline of target buildings and surrounding area:Accessible and inaccessible areas for fire equipmentRoads, buildings, obstaclesApparatus placementWater SourcesPlot Plan is an overhead map view of building location and surrounding areas.Accessibility – apparatus responding to scene. Can they fit?Roads, buildings, obstacles- roads leading to the address, buildings (exposures) and obstacles (low electrical wires, can the ladder set up?). Low bridges and overpasses : can the apparatus get there safely?Apparatus placement: Things to take into consideration: collapse zone, ladder set up with outriggers (enough room), overhead wires and other hazards. Part of pre-plan is to take the apparatus to the building in question and set it up.Water Sources: Hydrant locations
11 Steps for Conducting Pre-Incident Plans 1. Make appointment – state purpose as information gathering Approaching Building a. Exposures b. hydrant / water locations c. road access to site Exterior Inspection a. construction / dimensions b. fire escape / stairway c. Fire department connection (FDC) d. Means of egress / ingress e. ObstructionsConcern Areas:Construction- the type of construction is vital information regarding life safetyLife Hazards- Chemicals, explosives, heavy fire loadIngress/Egress- Identifying these access points will aid in fire suppression activities and emergency evacuation efforts.Exposures- Protecting infrastructure surrounding the scene. These buildings need to be noted on the Pre-Incident Plan.Ventilation- Roof sketches and pictures along with building diagram will offer the Incident Commander the information needed to select the most practical area to vent.Utilities- All mechanical rooms need to be included in a Pre-Incident Survey. Electrical, Mechanical, Boiler, Fire Sprinkler, etc. are examples of utility rooms.
12 Steps for Conducting Pre-Incident Plans 4. Interview owner / manager/ occupant(s) a. Explain purpose of visit b. Nature of occupancy/contact information/hours c. Number / location of people d. Contents e. Handicapped Roof inspection a. Building layout b. Construction c. Exposure problems from roof vantage point d. Firewall location and condition e. Methods of ventilation
13 Steps for Conducting Pre-Incident Plans 6. Interior Inspection a. Each floor - sketch of all pertinent findings - Utilities, EXITS, fire department equipment access b. Attic Area – note construction c. Life Hazard Types of fire loads Hazardous Materials Storage Locations d. Extinguishing and alarm systems
14 Steps for Conducting Pre-Incident Plans 7. Conclusion a. Review all information- research any information that may be unfamiliar b. Estimate and discuss potential fire problem(s) c. Determine strategies and tactics d. Review all information with all employees and shifts e. Organize information into a usable form f. Update and maintain files g. Keep information available for use at emergencies Pre-Incident Plan Book On Board computers Dispatch Centers
15 NATIONAL INSTITUTE FOR OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH FIREFIGHTER FATALITY REPORTS (NIOSH) (click on each NIOSH Recommendation for pdf report)2/21/06 Alabama- Two Firefighters killed when struck by wall collapse NIOSH Recommendation #2 of 4 “Conduct pre-incident planning and inspections of building within their jurisdiction to facilitate development of safe fire ground strategies and tactics.” (F )8/27/06 New York- Two Firefighters killed in commercial building floor collapse NIOSH Recommendation #1 of 2 “Consider the possibility of substandard structures when building information is not available from pre-incident plan.” (F )12/30/06 Texas Firefighter killed by awning in commercial fire NIOSH Recommendation #3 of 10 “Conduct pre-incident planning and inspections of building within their jurisdiction to facilitate development of safe fire ground strategies and tactics.” (F )
16 7/6/2008 Teague, TX- Fire Chief killed from wall collapse: NATIONAL INSTITUTE FOR OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTHPENDING Firefighter fatality reports (NIOSH)3/7/2008 Salisbury, N.C.- Two Firefighters killed in Millwork fire:7/6/2008 Teague, TX- Fire Chief killed from wall collapse:8/18/2008 New York, NY-Two Firefighters killed in commercial building fire:6/18/2008 Charleston, S.C., Nine Firefighters killed in furniture store fire:
17 Charleston, South Carolina June 18, 2007 Bradford Rodney “Brad” Baity Engineer 19Louis Mark Mulkey Captain 15Theodore Michael Benke / Captain 16Melvin Edward Champaign Firefighter 16James “Earl” Allen Drayton / Firefighter 19Brandon Kenyon Thompson Firefighter 5Michael Jonathon Alan French Engineer 5Mark Wesley Kelsey / Captain 5William H. “Billy” Hutchinson, III Captain 19