Presentation on theme: "Quality of Life (2) New materials for implants New therapies: gene therapy, e.g. genetically engineered protein for hemophiliacs Robot assisted surgery."— Presentation transcript:
Quality of Life (2) New materials for implants New therapies: gene therapy, e.g. genetically engineered protein for hemophiliacs Robot assisted surgery Tissue engineering New drug delivery system New isotopes for diagnostic and therapy Mechanical devices: micro-pumps, micro-valves
Quality of Life (3) Environment : – Improving urban life : transport, housing, limitation of natural and man induced hazards, preserving cultural heritage – Reducing waste : introduction of materials saving processes (see diagram of material flow for the production of Silicium for photovoltaic cells)
Quality of Life (4) recycling of materials: French fries oils ( 1.1 Billion liters per year in the U.S.), ban on animal based feedstock substances (« farines animales ») in France leading to 2.8 Million Tons of slaughtering residues to be disposed of, if no longer processed, the equivalent of 10 000 trucks of 30 Tons capacity on the roads, etc introduction of Zero Emission Schemes by industrial clustering (Kalundborg, Grande Synthe, Iwate, etc)
Quality of Life (5) – Preserving the natural environment : global pollution : climate change local pollutions – Prevention and mitigation of natural and anthropogenic hazards Earthquakes, tsunamis Typhoons, Hurricanes, Tornadoes Floods, Landslides – Saving water Two case studies: Climate Change and Water Conservation
S&T and Climate Change (1) Projection of global temperature rises in 21st century leads to higher figures than forecasted by IPCC in 1995: +1.5 to +6°C rather than +1 to +3.5°C (extreme over last 18000 years: –4.5 to + 2°C) Effects on sea level, sea currents, desertification, extreme climatic events, propagation of diseases
S&T and Climate Change (2) How can S&T contribute to mitigate the problem? – Better understanding of the highly complex, non- linear phenomena governing climate change, notably the terrestrial carbon cycle, the influence of suspended particles such as sulfates in the atmosphere, the increased occurence of tempests and cyclones
S&T and Climate Change (3) – Technologies for reducing greenhouse gases emissions: energy conservation, clean technologies in energy production (43% of anthropogenic CO²), industry (19%) and transport (24%), reduction of emissions from animal husbandry (30% of anthropogenic Methane), rice paddies (22%), waste dumps (11%), oil fields (17%), forest fires (11%) – Technologies for CO² sequestration: deep and shallow water injection, underground storage, forest plantations
S&T and Climate Change (4) The last solution- carbon sequestration through forest plantations - gets a substantial boost from a controversial mechanism- beyond the tradable emission permits- foreseen in the Kyoto Protocol: the Clean Development Mechanism allowing companies to offset their emissions by funding pollution-reducing projects in countries which are not subject to an emissions cap
S&T and Climate Change (5) Examples of CDM application : – Chiapas, Mexico:project Scolel Té financed by FIA. Planting pine trees to offset the yearly 5500 tons of carbon from Formula 1 racing activities. – Bolivia: long term conservation of 650 000 ha of forests to offset the 7 million tons of carbon over 100 years from American Electric Power Co. – Large range of prices: Chiapas 12$ per ton of carbon sequestred, Bolivia 2$ per ton,Costa Rica (for Norway) 10$ per ton. Expectation to see carbon credits quoted on the futures markets
S&T and Climate Change (6) Pros and Cons of the CDM application PRO: slow down deforestation PRO: bring new sources of revenue to farmers in developing countries CON: reduce the pressure for cutting own emissions; acquiring carbon credits is cheaper than converting a coal-fired power plant CON:encourage the use of fertilizers for accelerating growth; fertilizers are themselves sources of GHG and pollute waters
S&T and Climate Change (7) CON: Danger of destroying biodiversity CON: Very difficult to measure exact amount of carbon sequestered As in many other cases, a holistic approach has to be taken, including all possible scientific, technological, economical, financial, political and social factors
Water Conservation (1) The scarcity of water is a threat to world population growth. « Water wars » are possible in the future ( Middle East, most of Africa, Southeast Asia) Currently 1 Billion people lack access to safe drinking water, 2.1 Billion are without safe sanitation In 1995, there were acute water shortages for 436 Million inhabitants in 29 countries. In 2025, this will happen to 1.4 Billion in 48 countries.
Water Conservation (2) What can S&T do for allivieting the problem?: – Less costly desalinisation processes – Producing food in deserts using water-holding gels – Growing « dry rice » – Water saving techniques in industry e.g.steel and paper – New irrigation practices – Better water delivery systems ( loss of water in some cities’distribution systems amounts to 40-60%) S&T are not enough. It requires a change in approach as well as huge investments (180 Billion$ per year)
Lessons from the two cases S&T can help, but they can’t alone solve all issues. Such problems require a holistic approach encompassing social, political, economical, financial and even cultural factors. In both cases, as in many others in the environmental field, nearly all scientific disciplines are involved in the study of the right solution. It is a field characterised by a strong interdisciplinarity.
The Position of Europe in S&T (1) Several indicators are used for describing the position of the European Union and its Member States in S&T. They are represented in the following tables and diagrammes: – Gross Expenditure in R&D – Governement Expenditure in R&D and Business Expenditure in R&D – R&D personnel These indicators do not describe the ultimate efficiency of the system, as they are limited to the description of input parameters