7 Biotic FactorsBiotic factors that affect the distribution of organisms may include:Interactions with other speciesPredationCompetition
8 Abiotic Factors Abiotic factors affecting distribution of organisms: TemperatureWaterSunlightWindRocks and soil
9 Sunlight Light intensity and quality affects photosynthesis Light is also important to development and behavior of organisms sensitive to photoperiod
10 WindWind amplifies effects of temperature by increasing heat loss from evaporation and convectionWind can change morphology of plants
11 Rocks and SoilMany characteristics of soil limit distribution of plants and thus the animals that feed upon them:Physical structurepHMineral composition
12 ClimateFour major abiotic components of climate: temperature, water, sunlight, and windClimate is the prevailing weather in an area
13 LE 50-10aNorth Pole60°NLow angle of incoming sunlight30°NTropic ofCancerSunlight directly overhead at equinoxes0° (equator)Tropic ofCapricorn30°SLow angle of incoming sunlight60°SSouth PoleAtmosphere
14 LE 50-10bMarch equinox: Equator faces sun directly; neither pole tilts toward sun; all regions on Earth experience 12 hours of daylight and 12 hours of darkness.60°N30°NJune solstice: Northern Hemisphere tilts toward sun; summer begins in Northern Hemisphere; winter begins in Southern Hemisphere.0° (equator)30°SDecember solstice: Northern Hemisphere tilts away from sun; winter begins in Northern Hemisphere; summer begins in Southern Hemisphere.Constant tiltof 23.5°September equinox: Equator faces sun directly; neither pole tilts toward sun; all regions on Earth experience 12 hours of daylight and 12 hours of darkness.
15 Wind direction East Pacific Ocean Sierra Nevada Coast Range LE 50-12WinddirectionEastPacificOceanSierraNevadaCoastRange
17 Aquatic biomes account for the largest part of the biosphere in terms of area They can contain fresh water or salt waterOceans cover about 75% of Earth’s surface and have an enormous impact on the biosphere
18 Littoral zone Limnetic zone Photic zone Pelagic zone Benthic zone LE 50-16aLittoralzoneLimneticzonePhoticzonePelagiczoneBenthiczoneAphoticzoneZonation in a lake
19 (deepest regions of ocean floor) LE 50-16bIntertidal zoneNeritic zoneOceanic zonePhotic zone200 mContinentalshelfPelagiczoneBenthiczoneAphoticzone2,500–6,000 mAbyssal zone(deepest regions of ocean floor)Marine zonation
26 Annual mean temperature (°C) LE 50-18DesertTemperate grasslandTropical forest30Temperatebroadleafforest15Annual mean temperature (°C)ConiferousforestArctic andalpinetundra–15100200300400Annual mean precipitation (cm)
27 LE 50-19 30°N Tropic of Cancer Equator Tropic of Capricorn 30°S ChaparralKeyTundraTemperate grasslandHigh mountainsTropical forestTemperate broadleaf forestPolar iceSavannaConiferous forestDesert
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