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Copyright © 2005 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings PowerPoint Lectures for Biology, Seventh Edition Neil Campbell and Jane Reece.

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Presentation on theme: "Copyright © 2005 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings PowerPoint Lectures for Biology, Seventh Edition Neil Campbell and Jane Reece."— Presentation transcript:

1 Copyright © 2005 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings PowerPoint Lectures for Biology, Seventh Edition Neil Campbell and Jane Reece Lectures by Chris Romero Chapter 50 An Introduction to Ecology and the Biosphere

2 LE 50-3a Organismal ecology

3 LE 50-3b Population ecology

4 LE 50-3c Community ecology

5 LE 50-3d Ecosystem ecology

6 Copyright © 2005 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings Rachel Carson – Silent Spring

7 Copyright © 2005 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings Biotic Factors Biotic factors that affect the distribution of organisms may include: – Interactions with other species – Predation – Competition

8 Copyright © 2005 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings Abiotic Factors Abiotic factors affecting distribution of organisms: – Temperature – Water – Sunlight – Wind – Rocks and soil

9 Copyright © 2005 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings Sunlight Light intensity and quality affects photosynthesis Light is also important to development and behavior of organisms sensitive to photoperiod

10 Copyright © 2005 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings Wind Wind amplifies effects of temperature by increasing heat loss from evaporation and convection Wind can change morphology of plants

11 Copyright © 2005 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings Rocks and Soil Many characteristics of soil limit distribution of plants and thus the animals that feed upon them: – Physical structure – pH – Mineral composition

12 Copyright © 2005 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings Climate Four major abiotic components of climate: temperature, water, sunlight, and wind Climate is the prevailing weather in an area

13 LE 50-10a North Pole 60°N Low angle of incoming sunlight Sunlight directly overhead at equinoxes Tropic of Cancer 60°S South Pole 30°N Atmosphere 30°S Tropic of Capricorn 0° (equator)

14 LE 50-10b June solstice: Northern Hemisphere tilts toward sun; summer begins in Northern Hemisphere; winter begins in Southern Hemisphere. 30°N 30°S 0° (equator) 60°N Constant tilt of 23.5° September equinox: Equator faces sun directly; neither pole tilts toward sun; all regions on Earth experience 12 hours of daylight and 12 hours of darkness. December solstice: Northern Hemisphere tilts away from sun; winter begins in Northern Hemisphere; summer begins in Southern Hemisphere. March equinox: Equator faces sun directly; neither pole tilts toward sun; all regions on Earth experience 12 hours of daylight and 12 hours of darkness.

15 LE Pacific Ocean Wind direction Coast Range Sierra Nevada East

16 LE Winter O 2 (mg/L) 12 Lake depth (m) O 2 concentration High (>8 mg/L) Medium (4–8 mg/L) Low (<4 mg/L) O 2 (mg/L) 12 Lake depth (m) O 2 (mg/L) 12 Lake depth (m) O 2 (mg/L) 12 Lake depth (m) Autumn Summer Spring Thermocline 4°C 5° 6° 8° 18° 20° 22° 4°C 4° 4°C 4° 4°C 4° 2° 0° 4°

17 Copyright © 2005 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings Aquatic biomes account for the largest part of the biosphere in terms of area They can contain fresh water or salt water Oceans cover about 75% of Earth’s surface and have an enormous impact on the biosphere

18 LE 50-16a Zonation in a lake Benthic zone Pelagic zone Aphotic zone Photic zone Littoral zone Limnetic zone

19 LE 50-16b Marine zonation Benthic zone Pelagic zone Aphotic zone Photic zone Oceanic zone Neritic zone Intertidal zone Continental shelf m 2,500–6,000 m Abyssal zone (deepest regions of ocean floor)

20 Copyright © 2005 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings Oligotrophic or Eutrophic?

21 Copyright © 2005 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings

22 Intertidal zone - Oregon

23 Copyright © 2005 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings Pelagic – open ocean

24 Copyright © 2005 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings Coral Reef – Red Sea

25 Copyright © 2005 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings Deep Sea Hydrothermal vent – tube worms

26 LE Temperate grassland Tropical forest Desert Temperate broadleaf forest Coniferous forest Arctic and alpine tundra Annual mean precipitation (cm) Annual mean temperature (°C) –15

27 LE Temperate grassland Tropic of Cancer 30°N Tropic of Capricorn 30°S Equator Tropical forest Desert Savanna Key Chaparral Coniferous forest Temperate broadleaf forest Tundra High mountains Polar ice

28 Copyright © 2005 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings

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