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Lesson 12: What was the conflict over representation?

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1 Lesson 12: What was the conflict over representation?
As we learned yesterday, the Framers agreed about the need for a strong national government. They also agreed that the Articles of Confederation needed to be replaced by a new constitution. Today we will learn about one of the major disagreements that the delegates had at the convention: how many representatives each state would have in Congress. When we finish, you should be able to explain this conflict over representation and how it was solved.

2 What was one of the most important conflicts among the Framers?
Representation in Congress—how many representatives each state should be able to send to Congress

3 This conflict was between whom?
The delegates from states with small populations and those from states with large populations

4 What was the position of the small population states?
These states were afraid that the states with larger populations would control the new national government Their solution was to argue that each state should have the same number of representatives in Congress This solution was called “equal representation”

5 What was their plan called and what did it propose?
The New Jersey Plan (written by William Patterson, a delegate from New Jersey) One house of Congress Each state would have an equal number of representatives in Congress—equal representation

6 What was the position of the large population states?
The delegates from the states with large populations thought that equal representation was unfair. They argued that a state with more people should have more representatives in Congress “Proportional representation”—number of representatives should be in “proportion” to the state’s population

7 What was their plan called, who proposed it, and what did it propose?
Virginia Plan James Madison 2 houses of Congress (modeled after British Parliament that has the House of Commons and the House of Lords) Proportional representation in both houses

8 Because the delegates could not reach a decision on this issue, what did the Convention do?
Neither side was willing to give in and the convention was stuck—they couldn’t reach a decision A special committee of one delegate from each state was asked to develop a solution They recommended a compromise

9 What was the solution to this disagreement called and what did it propose?
The Great Compromise (suggested by Ben Franklin, also called the Connecticut Compromise because it was presented by Roger Sherman, a delegate from Connecticut) Congress would have…two houses, the Senate and the House of Representatives The House of Representatives would be…elected on the basis of proportional representation and have the power to develop all taxing & spending bills The Senate would be…elected on the basis of equal representation

10 What did each side get it this compromise?
Each side received a little and each side gave up a little The small states received equal representation in the Senate The large states got proportional representation in the House of Representatives and the House was given the “power of the purse”—the power to propose all taxing and spending bills.

11 What was the result of the compromise?
Large states would have slightly more influence over the creation of laws on taxation and how many would be spent Bills passed by the House could always be checked, or rejected, by the Senate, where the small states had equal representation

12 By how many votes did the compromise pass?
One! It was a very hotly debated compromise and just barely passed!

13 Look at the chart on page 50
Look at the chart on page 50. List the states that you think were on the “large state” side. Virginia (population 691,737) Pennsylvania (population 434,373) North Carolina (population 393,751) Massachusetts (population 378,787) New York (population 340,120) South Carolina (population 249,073)—was relatively small but was expecting growth so it actually supported proportional representation

14 Using the chart, list the states that you think were on the “small state” side.
Delaware (population of 59,096) Rhode Island (population of 68,825, but they didn’t send delegates to the Convention) Georgia (population of 82,548) New Hampshire (population of 141,885) New Jersey (population of 184,139) Connecticut (population 237,946) Maryland (population 319,728)—fairly large population but delegates were opposed to proportional representation—favored equal

15 Homework for Tonight Read Lesson 13 in your textbook
Answer Lesson 13 questions in your study guide

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