Presentation on theme: "Changes to vocabulary items over time Kuiper and Allan Chapter 3.3.3."— Presentation transcript:
Changes to vocabulary items over time Kuiper and Allan Chapter 3.3.3
Changes to vocabulary items over time lexicalisation and idiosyncrasy semantic change –denotation semantic widening e.g. barn semantic narrowing e.g. disease
Changes to vocabulary over time (contd) semantic change –connotation pejoration (worsening of connotation) e.g. lewd amelioration (improving of connotation) e.g. knight –metaphorical transfer as a mechanism for meaning change e.g. blind alley
Changes to vocabulary over time (contd) change in form –clipping e.g. flu, bus, Fred –structural drift e.g. window changes in grammatical category –proper noun conversion e.g. diesel, bowler (hat)
Deletion from total vocabulary: archaism and loss Of the various types of carriages now in vogue, the Victoria, in its many varieties of form, is the most popular, accompanied, as of necessity by the Double Victoria, Sociable, Brougham, Landaulet and Landau. –from the entry for Carriage in the 10th Edition of the Encyclopedia Brittanica
Word histories (etymology) Every word that exists, i.e. every lexical item has a history. Speakers only know this history if they look it up.