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©2009 Carnegie Mellon University : 1 Leveraging Human Factors for Effective Security Training FISSEA 2012 Jason Hong firstname.lastname@example.org
©2012 Carnegie Mellon University : 2 About the Speaker Associate Prof, Carnegie Mellon University, School of Comp Science Research and teaching interests: – Usable privacy and security – Mobile computing Co-author Startup
©2012 Carnegie Mellon University : 3 About this Talk Useful for people interested in: – How to effectively train people? – How to effectively design better user interfaces for privacy and security? Two case studies from my research Embedded TrainingEvaluating Warnings
©2012 Carnegie Mellon University : 4 Human Element of Security People are key part of computer security for every organization – Keeping passwords strong and secure – Avoiding social engineering – Avoiding malware – Appropriate use of social networking – Keeping mobile devices secure Overlooking human element is most common mistake in computer security
©2012 Carnegie Mellon University : 5 What is Human-Computer Interaction? Field that seeks to understand the relationship between people & computers – Designing useful, usable, desirable artifacts – Understanding how people use systems – Expanding the ways we can use computers Combines behavioral sciences, interaction design, and computer science
©2012 Carnegie Mellon University : 6 Interactions Can Be Successful
©2012 Carnegie Mellon University : 7 Interactions Can Also Fail
©2012 Carnegie Mellon University : 8 Design Principles in 5 Minutes How do people believe how things work? Mental models describe how a person thinks something works Incorrect mental models can make things very hard to understand and use
©2012 Carnegie Mellon University : 9 Mental Models Example: Refrigerator Freezer (temperature too cold) Fresh food (temperature just right)
©2012 Carnegie Mellon University : 10 Refrigerator Controls What is a typical conceptual model? Normal SettingsC and 5 Colder Fresh FoodC and 6-7 Coldest Fresh FoodB and 8-9 Colder FreezerD and 7-8 Warmer Fresh FoodC and 4-1 OFF (both)0 A B C D E 7 6 5 4 3
©2012 Carnegie Mellon University : 11 7 6 5 4 3 A B C D E Most people think of independent controls Cooling Unit Cooling Unit A Common Conceptual Model
©2012 Carnegie Mellon University : 12 Now can you fix the problem? Two general solutions: – make controls map to user’s mental model – foster a more accurate mental model 7 6 5 4 3 A B C D E Cooling Unit Actual Conceptual Model Controls amount of cold air Controls amount air vectored up and down
©2012 Carnegie Mellon University : 13 Nissan Maxima Gear Shift
©2012 Carnegie Mellon University : 14 Users create a model from what they hear from others, past experiences, and usage – interactions with system image Three Different Models Design Model (How you intend the system to work) Design Model (How you intend the system to work) User Model (How users think the system works) User Model (How users think the system works) System Image (Your implementation) System Image (Your implementation) User Interactions System feedback
©2012 Carnegie Mellon University : 15 Mental Models People inevitably build models of how things work – Ex. children and computers – Ex. you and your car – Ex. how hackers work (and why) – Ex. visibility in social networking sites – Ex. app stores (all apps vetted by Google?) Two options: – Make the system match people’s models – Foster a better mental model
©2012 Carnegie Mellon University : 16 Example: Phishing Attacks Interviewed 40 people as part of an “email study” (Downs et al, SOUPS 2006) Only 55% of participants said they had ever noticed an unexpected or strange- looking URL – Most did not consider them to be suspicious
©2012 Carnegie Mellon University : 17 Example: Phishing Attacks 55% of participants reported being cautious when email asks for sensitive financial info – But very few reported being suspicious of email asking for passwords Knowledge of financial phish reduced likelihood of falling for these scams – But did not transfer to other scams, such as an amazon.com password phish
©2012 Carnegie Mellon University : 18 Can We Educate End-Users? Users not motivated to learn Security is a secondary task Difficult to teach people right decisions without increasing false positives Basically, educating users is as hard as herding cats
©2012 Carnegie Mellon University : 19 Yes, End-Users Are Trainable Our research demonstrates users can learn how to protect themselves… if you can get them to pay attention to training Problem is that today’s training often boring, time consuming, and ineffective – All day lecture, no chance to practice skills – Or passively watching videos – Or posters and mugs and calendars – Raise awareness, but little on what to actually do
©2012 Carnegie Mellon University : 20 How Do We Get People Trained? Create “teachable moments” Micro-games for training (fun) Use learning science principles throughout Embedded TrainingMicro-Game on Phishing
©2012 Carnegie Mellon University : 21 PhishGuru Embedded Training Send simulated phishing emails If recipient falls for it, show intervention that teaches what cues to look for in succinct and engaging format – Useful for people who don’t know that they don’t know Multiple user studies have demonstrated that PhishGuru is effective Delivering training via direct email not effective
©2012 Carnegie Mellon University : 22 Subject: Revision to Your Amazon.com Information
©2012 Carnegie Mellon University : 23 Subject: Revision to Your Amazon.com Information Please login and enter your information
©2012 Carnegie Mellon University : 24
©2012 Carnegie Mellon University : 25 Learning Science Area of research examining learning, retention, and transfer of skills Example principles – Learning by doing – Immediate feedback – Conceptual-procedural – Reflection – … many others
©2012 Carnegie Mellon University : 26 Evaluation of PhishGuru Is embedded training effective? – We’ve conducted 4 peer-reviewed studies showing embedded training works well – Studies showed significant decrease in falling for phish and ability to retain what they learned P. Kumaraguru et al. Protecting People from Phishing: The Design and Evaluation of an Embedded Training Email System. CHI 2007. P. Kumaraguru et al. School of Phish: A Real-Word Evaluation of Anti-Phishing Training. SOUPS 2009.
©2012 Carnegie Mellon University : 27 Results of One Study Tested 500+ people in one month – 1 simulated phish at beginning of month, testing done at end of month ~50% reduction in falling for phish – 68 out of 85 surveyed said they recommend continuing doing this sort of training in the future – “I really liked the idea of sending [organization] fake phishing emails and then saying to them, essentially, HEY! You could've just gotten scammed! You should be more careful – here's how...”
©2012 Carnegie Mellon University : 28 Can Browser Interfaces Help? Modern web browsers come with blacklists and special interfaces for identifying phish – Our evaluation of several blacklists show they catch ~80% of phish after 24 hours, not very good in first few hours Are these browser interfaces effective? – And, what can we learn from them? – Science of Warnings from human factors
©2012 Carnegie Mellon University : 29 Screenshots Internet Explorer 7 – Passive Warning
©2012 Carnegie Mellon University : 30 Screenshots Internet Explorer 7 – Active Block
©2012 Carnegie Mellon University : 31 Screenshots Mozilla Firefox – Active Block
©2012 Carnegie Mellon University : 32 How Effective are these Warnings? Tested four conditions – FireFox Active Block – IE Active Block – IE Passive Warning – Control (no warnings or blocks) “Shopping Study” – Setup phishing pages and added to blacklists – Phished users after real purchases (2 phish) – Used real email accounts and personal info S. Egelman, L. Cranor, and J. Hong. You've Been Warned: An Empirical Study of the Effectiveness of Web Browser Phishing Warnings. CHI 2008.
©2012 Carnegie Mellon University : 33 How Effective are these Warnings? Almost everyone clicked, even those with strong technical backgrounds
©2012 Carnegie Mellon University : 34 How Effective are these Warnings? No one in Firefox condition fell for our phish People in Firefox condition not more technically savvy
©2012 Carnegie Mellon University : 35 Discussion of Phish Warnings Nearly everyone will fall for highly targeted and contextualized phish Passive IE warning failed for many reasons – Didn’t interrupt the main task – Can be slow to appear (up to 5 seconds) – Not clear what the right action was – Looked too much like other ignorable warnings (habituation) – Bug, any keystroke dismissed
©2012 Carnegie Mellon University : 36 Screenshots Internet Explorer – Passive Warning
©2012 Carnegie Mellon University : 37 Discussion of Phish Warnings Active IE warnings – Most saw the warning, but many did not believe it “Since it gave me the option of still proceeding to the website, I figured it couldn’t be that bad” – Some element of habituation (looks like other warnings) – Saw two pathological cases
©2012 Carnegie Mellon University : 38 Screenshots Internet Explorer – Active Block
©2012 Carnegie Mellon University : 39 MSIE8 Re-design Based on our Work MSIE8 Redesign Based on our Work
©2012 Carnegie Mellon University : 40 A Science of Warnings C-HIP model for real-world warnings – See the warning? – Understand it? – Believe it? – Motivated? – Can and will act?
©2012 Carnegie Mellon University : 41 Designing for Path of Least Resistance Where possible, make the default behavior safe – Ex. The two pathological cases – Assume people won’t see, read, believe, or be motivated Active warnings over passive warnings – Interrupt people if warning is important – Need to balance this with habituation Make important warnings look very different
©2012 Carnegie Mellon University : 42 Summary Human element most overlooked aspect of computer security – Ex. phishing scams, passwords, mobile Mental models important to design – Mismatched models can cause failures Security training can work if done right – Learning sciences C-HIP model for security warnings – Do people see, understand, believe, and can act on warnings?
©2012 Carnegie Mellon University : 43 More of Our Research Our team does research on: – Better password policies – Alternatives to passwords – Mobile apps, privacy and security – Location-based services and privacy – Social networking and privacy – Configuring firewalls
©2012 Carnegie Mellon University : 44 More of Our Research http://cups.cs.cmu.edu http://mcom.cs.cmu.edu http://cmuchimps.org/
©2012 Carnegie Mellon University : 45 Thanks, where can I learn more? Find more at wombatsecurity.com email@example.com
©2012 Carnegie Mellon University : 46
©2012 Carnegie Mellon University : 47 Micro-Games for Cyber Security Training doesn’t have to be long & boring Micro game format, play for short time Two-thirds of Americans played a video game in past six months Not just young people – Average game player 35 years old – 25% of people over 50 play games Not just males – 40% of casual gamers are women
©2012 Carnegie Mellon University : 48 Case Study: Anti-Phishing Phil Tested Anti-Phishing Phil with ~4500 people – Huge improvement by novices in identifying phishing URLs – Also dramatically lowered false positives
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©2012 Carnegie Mellon University : 55 False negatives for users who played Anti-Phishing Phil (“game condition”). False negatives are situations where people incorrectly label a phishing site as legitimate. Novices saw the greatest reduction in false negatives, and retained what they had learned.
©2012 Carnegie Mellon University : 56 False positives for users who played the Anti-Phishing Phil game. False positives are situations where people incorrectly label a legitimate site as phishing. Again, novices saw the greatest improvement in reducing false positives, and retained what they had learned.
©2012 Carnegie Mellon University : 57
©2012 Carnegie Mellon University : 58 Example Topic: Email Security
©2012 Carnegie Mellon University : 59 Example Topic: Passwords
©2012 Carnegie Mellon University : 60 Other Training: Social Networks
©2012 Carnegie Mellon University : 61 Measurable
©2012 Carnegie Mellon University : 62 Measurable
©2012 Carnegie Mellon University : 63 Case Study #1: PhishGuru Canadian healthcare organization Three-month embedded training campaign – 190 employees – Security assessment and effective training in context
©2012 Carnegie Mellon University : 64 Simulated Phishing Email
©2012 Carnegie Mellon University : 65 Case Study
©2012 Carnegie Mellon University : 66 Measurable Reduction in Falling for Phish Viewed Email Only% Viewed Email and Clicked Link%Employees Campaign 12010.53%3518.42%190 Campaign 23719.47%2312.11%190 Campaign 373.70%105.29%189
©2012 Carnegie Mellon University : 67
©2012 Carnegie Mellon University : 68 Can We Educate End-Users? Users not motivated to learn Security is a secondary task Difficult to teach people right decisions without increasing false positives “User education is a complete waste of time. It is about as much use as nailing jelly to a wall… They are not interested…they just want to do their job.” -- An IBM security specialist
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