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Combined Heat and Power Concept.

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Presentation on theme: "Combined Heat and Power Concept."— Presentation transcript:

1 Combined Heat and Power Concept.
Dr. Oscar L. Jimenez Energy Project Manager. GEPROP.

2 CHP concept. Contents: CHP definition. CHP options.
Key steps in a typical CHP project. Reliability and Availability of a CHP system. Fuels and prime movers. CHP operating costs. Quotations on CHP usage. Concluding remarks.

3 CHP concept. Definition:
-Combined Heat and Power (CHP) is the on-site generation and use of heat and electricity in a cost-effective and environmentally responsible way.

4 CHP concept. CHP technological options: -Gas turbine based scheme.
-Steam turbine based scheme. (Rankine cycle.) -Reciprocating engines. (Gas-fired or oil-fired engines.) -Combined cycle. ...aiming at driving an electricity generator and making practical use of heat.

5 CHP concept. VHP LP IP Schematic of a steam turbine based scheme
Back pressure steam turbine. Electricity to process site and power grid. Fuel LP Intermediate and low pressure steam to process site. Feedwater IP Boiler Schematic of a steam turbine based scheme

6 CHP concept. The overall efficiency of such systems can be in excess of 80% which leads to considerable reductions in emission of carbon dioxide, nitrogen oxides and sulphur oxides. CHP: -could boost your profit. -increase your security of supply. -improve your environmental performance.

7 CHP concept. Financial. The benefits of CHP Environmetal. Strategic.
Cost savings. Financial. The benefits of CHP Environmetal. Strategic. Reduced NOx, SOx, CO2 emissions. More resources available for core business

8 CHP concept. CHP represents a major decision taken at board level.
Should be considered as an integral part of the overall company strategy. It has a lifetime of up 25 years and its economics are typically evaluated over a ten year period. It’s important to determine future demands and load profile because viability of scheme may be adversely affected by major reductions on heat and power loads.

9 CHP concept. Feasibility study Preliminary assessment No Yes Preliminary assessment Hold tender for full feasibility study Commission full feasibility study, review results. Raise awareness Board approval Draw up project spedification. No In house Yes Board approval Develop full project specification. Appoint project team, develop plans and designs. Place enquires for main plant, hold tender. Finalise outline design, and financed package. 3rd party Board approval Short list energy services and CHP suppliers, hold tenders. No Detailed design. Review at later date Review tenders and negotiate terms. Flowchart showing key steps in a typical CHP project process. No Board approval Let contracts for supply. Let contracts for supply. Detail design, supply, instalation and comissioning. Supply Detail design, supply, instalation and comissioning. Operation, maintenance and monitoring.

10 CHP concept. Is a CHP an option for your company? START Yes
Have all cost-effective energy efficiency alternative been considered? Yes Determine when future heat and power loads can be predicted. START Are major changes expected to future heat and power loads? No Evaluate the likely future loads. Carry out a thorough energy review or audit of the site. No Yes Yes Does the anual operating period exceed 4500 hours/year? Do the heat and power loads coincide? CHP is unlikely to be cost-effective at present. Re-evaluate in the future. Investigate the feasibility of CHP No No Are you considering boiler up-grade, replacement or refurbishment? Yes No Is a CHP an option for your company?

11 CHP concept. Energy demand profiles show the patterns of energy usage over specified time periods. The success of the whole project depends on these profiles and it is essential that appropriate resources are allocated to producing these.

12 CHP concept. Example: Site heat and power load profile.
Electricity used, MW Heat load, MW 00:00 24:00 00:00 24:00 Time. (hours. Time. (hours.) Example: Site heat and power load profile.

13 CHP concept. Reliability and Availability.
-These factors are really important. CHP system must operate over extended period of time in order to be economic. -Reliability of a prime mover is a measure of its susceptibility to unscheduled shutdown. -Availability take into account all outages and is a measure of its readiness to keep running.

14 CHP concept. Reliability and Availability.
-Formulae for their estimation: %Reliability = T – (S + U) x 100 T – S %Availability = T – (S + U) x 100 T

15 CHP concept. Reliability and Availability. (continue) Where:
-S = scheduled maintenance shutdown. (hr) -U = unscheduled shutdown. (hr) -T = time period when the plant is available for service. (hr)

16 CHP concept. Availability range.
-Gas turbine: 94 – 98 % have been achieved. -Steam turbine: up to 99 %. -Reciprocating engines: expect availability in the range 85 – 92 %

17 CHP concept. Fuels. -May be solid, liquid or gaseous and either “commercial” of waste. -Commercial fuels: fossil fuel which are extracted and treated to varying degree and sold nation-wide. -Waste fuels: are by-products of processing or domestic activities. Only economic if available locally.

18 CHP concept. Fuel Gross calorific value Wood waste 15.8 MJ/kg
Heavy fuel oil 41.2 MJ/l Gas oil 38.3 MJ/l Natural gas 38.0 MJ/m3 Landfill gas 20.0 MJ/m3 Bagasse 10.5 MJ/kg

19 CHP concept. Prime mover.
-Mechanical machine which drives the electricity generator. -Its correct selection is very important for successful instalation. -Items such as: power output range, fuel to be used, the site heat:power ratio should be considered when choosing the best prime mover for the site.

20 CHP concept. Summary of prime movers. Type of plant.
Typical output range. Typical fuels. Typical heat:power ratio. Grade of heat output Gas turbine 0.5 MWe upwards (over 200 MWe) Natural gas, Gas oil, landfill, biogas. 1.5:1 to 3:1 High. (usually used in HRSG). Compression engines 2 MWe upwards (till 15 MWe) Natural gas + 5%gas oil, Heavy fuel oil. 1:1 to 1.5:1 Low Spark engines Up to 4 MWe Natural gas, landfill, biogas. 1:1 to 1.7:1 Steam turbine. 0.5 MWe upwards Any but converted to steam. 3.1:1 to 10:1 Medium Combined cycle 3.5 MWe As gas turbine. Down to 1:1 Summary of prime movers.

21 CHP concept. Reciprocating engines:
-Suitable for process sites having heat:power ratio ranging 0.2 – 2.0 (max., economy ≈ 0.6) Gas turbine -Suitable for process sites having heat:power ratio ranging 2.0 – 4.5 (max., economy ≈ 2.5 ) Steam turbine. -Suitable for process site having heat:power ratio 4.5 upwards (max., economy ≈ 6.5) Suggestions for choosing CHP prime movers

22 CHP concept. CHP operating cost comprise:
-Fuel for the prime mover, and for supplementary and auxiliary firing if applicable. -Maintenance, materials and labor including scheduled maintenance carry out by the manufacturers. -Labour for operating and servicing the plant.

23 CHP concept. CHP operating cost (continue):
-Consumables, e.g., lubricating oil, feedwater treatment chemicals, cooling tower dosing, as applicable. -Other costs, e.g., insurance.

24 CHP concept. Operating cost. -Maintenance.
-Second biggest component of the operating cost of CHP after fuel purchases. -Almost without exception will require the expertise of the equipment manufacturer or a specialist maintenance contractor for all but the most routine checks.

25 CHP concept. Prime mover Typical operating and maintenance cost.
Reciprocating engine – Euro/kWh Gas turbine cycle. – Euro/kWh Steam turbine cycle. 0.003 Euro/kWh

26 CHP concept. Summary of running cost for one installation. Item
Annual site energy cost £ 000 . Existing. With CHP Fuel A - existing boiler 2,034 1,550 Fuel B – gas turbine - 617 Total operating labour and maintenance. 250 308 Consumables and miscellaneous 80 88 Electricity purshased. 772 146 Electricity exported. (credit) 258 Total energy running cost 3,136 2,451 Savings. 685 Summary of running cost for one installation.

27 CHP concept. Over 90% of the saving in running cost comes from the diference in electricity purshased. The optimum CHP operating strategy, required to deliver the maximum cost benefits, will be strongly influenced by the electricity tariff structure. Electricity tariff vary according to season and time of day.

28 CHP concept. CHP is therefore optimised on the basis of only generating electricity when it is profitable to do so. It is pointless to export electricity for a price less than it cost to produce.

29 CHP concept. Factors favouring short payback periods:
-low investment cost. -low fuel price. -high electricity price. -high annual operating hours. -high overall thermal effciency.

30 CHP concept. The following are quotations from Exxon Mobile when analysing its use of cogeneration

31 Exxon Mobile quotation which deserves some thinking........
A CHP facility cannot have external control of its start-ups or shutdowns, nor outside control of cogeneration scheduling...... For a cogeneration project the electricity price is the most important variable in determining a project’s success—more so than capital costs, operating and maintenance costs and even fuel costs

32 Exxon Mobile quotation which deserves some thinking........ is critical to understand the market fundamental when deciding whether or not to export power into that market ....power market rules don’t typically recognise the inherent nature of cogeneration facilities and their tight integration within large manufacturing facilities

33 CHP concept. Concluding remarks.
Economic viability of CHP system largely depends on: -price structure of fuel and electricity. -running hours of the site. When choosing the CHP system which best suit the total site needs there should be considered:

34 CHP concept. -Heat:power ratio and its annual variance.
-Power tariff structure. -Power Load factor demand and its annual variance.

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