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English language Teaching and Learning

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1 English language Teaching and Learning
CLIL METHODOLOGY Máster Secundaria

2 CLIL DEFINITION Approach in which curricular subjects, such as History or Mathematics, or parts of subjects are taught through the medium of a second or foreign language. Learners are dealing with content matter in a language they would have otherwise learnt in conventional language classes. Antonia Domínguez Miguela

3 The Background Language across the curriculum (UK)
Immersion programmes (Canada) Canada 70s and 80s: In Quebec English speaking children were instructed in French, the official language. Content-based language teaching/learning (USA) 1980s: introduced subject content in language courses with immigrant students. Antonia Domínguez Miguela

4 CLIL dimensions: Linguistic: Educational: the 4 Cs Social: From To
UK formula ‘Language across the curriculum’ To ‘Languages across the curriculum’ (Woolf, 1998) Educational: the 4 Cs ‘It is through progression in the knowledge, skills and understanding of the content, engagement in associated cognitive processing and interaction in the communicative context that learning takes place (Coyle, 1998:7). Social: Multilingualism and multiculturalism= Ethos of European citizenship Antonia Domínguez Miguela

5 Features of CLIL programmes:
The L2 is the medium of instruction Overt support exists for the L1 Students enter with limited levels of language proficiency The teachers are sufficiently competent (in both languages) The L2 dimension curriculum parallels the local L1 curriculum The classroom culture is that of the local community. (C. Pérez Vidal, 2005) Antonia Domínguez Miguela

+ Focus on meaning + Group work interaction + Genuine questions + Opportunities to use lang. creatively + Opportunities to participate in task negotiations of topics Antonia Domínguez Miguela

7 4Cs Conceptual Framework: Coyle (1999)
Content Communication Cognition Culture Coyle developed the 4Cs Conceptual Framework from a holistic perspective to provide a basis for bringing together different facets of CLIL in order to support the development of CLIL pedagogies. The framework goes beyond considering subject matter and language as two separate elements but rather positions content in the ‘knowledge for learning’ domain (integrating content and cognition) and language, a culture-bound phenomenon, as a medium for learning (integrating communication and intercultural understanding). Antonia Domínguez Miguela

8 CLIL demands a reconceptualisation of the role of language in CLIL settings from language learning per se (based on grammatical progression) towards an approach which combines learning to use language and using language to learn Antonia Domínguez Miguela

9 In the 4Cs Framework communication involves CLIL teachers and learners in using and developing :
language of learning, Language for learning and Language through learning. Antonia Domínguez Miguela

10 Antonia Domínguez Miguela

11 Language of Learning Language of learning is based on an analysis of the language needed for learners to access basic concepts and skills relating to the subject theme or topic. An analysis of the language needed to scaffold content learning will lead to a complementary approach to learning progression i.e. the use of tenses will not be determined by grammatical difficulty but by functional need demanded by the content. Antonia Domínguez Miguela

12 Language for Learning The development of teaching strategies to scaffold learning must take into account the language required for both these processes to operate successfully. In CLIL settings this means learning how to learn effectively and developing skills such as those required for pair work, cooperative group work, asking questions, debating, chatting, enquiring, thinking, memorising and so on. McGuiness (1999) claims that unless learners are able to understand and use language to learn, to support each other and to be supported, then quality learning will not take place. Antonia Domínguez Miguela

13 Language for Learning In CLIL settings using the second language to learn raises the teacher’s awareness of learners’ linguistic needs and triggers ‘tuned-in’ strategic language behaviour such as comprehensible input, context-embedded language and comprehension checks CLIL fosters fluency rather than grammatical accuracy. Antonia Domínguez Miguela

14 Language for Learning Research has shown that cognitively undemanding work, such as copying or repetition, especially when there is little or no context to support it, does not enhance language learning (Smith & Paterson,1998: 1): by actively involving pupils in intellectually demanding work, the teacher is creating a genuine need for learners to acquire the appropriate language. Antonia Domínguez Miguela

15 Language for Learning Language is a matter of meaning as well as of form. Discourse does not just express meaning. Discourse creates meaning. Language development continues throughout our lives, particularly our educational lives. As we acquire new areas of knowledge, we acquire new areas of language and meaning. (Mohan & van Naerssen, 1997: 2) Antonia Domínguez Miguela

16 Plurilingual approach Curriculum Integrated curriculum Methodology
TESOL-SPAIN 2006 Approach Plurilingual approach Curriculum Integrated curriculum Methodology CLIL methodology Subjects L1, L2 and L3 At least two content subjects Teachers Subject teachers Language teachers Antonia Domínguez Miguela

Multiple focus Safe and enriching learning environment Authenticity Active Learning Scaffolding Antonia Domínguez Miguela

18 Summary: CLIL Methodology
It’s about supporting language within context It's about embedding language within task and It is a methodology which is based on a specific needs analysis of each and every learner in the classroom. It's a methodology based on a Vygotskyan model of constructing ways and means for learners to get from where they are to where they need to be and packages that within an environment of interaction with peers and the teacher. It's about teachers developing skills and knowledge about the language of their subject and techniques for creating task which offers learners access to this language. Antonia Domínguez Miguela

19 Dialogic Teaching Alexander (2005), suggests that talk is the most pervasive and powerful learning tool. Talk vitally mediates the cognitive and cultural spaces between . . .teacher and learner, between society and the individual Language not only manifests thinking but also structures it, and speech shapes the higher mental processes necessary for so much learning. (Alexander, 2005: 2) Antonia Domínguez Miguela

20 Active teaching Giving instructions clearly,
Accurately describing tasks, Maintaining learners’ engagement in instructional tasks by maintaining task focus, pacing instruction appropriately, and communicating their expectations for students’success. (Adapted from Navés et al. 2002) Antonia Domínguez Miguela

21 Presenting new information
Demonstrating, Outlining, Using visuals, Building redundancy, Rephrasing, Scaffolding, Linking new information to learners’ previous knowledge… (Adapted from Navés et al. 2002) Antonia Domínguez Miguela

22 Receptive skills non-verbal responses responding by doing
Emphasis is on the development of receptive skills. 2. Learners are allowed to respond in a wide variety of ways: non-verbal responses responding by doing Demonstrating… (Adapted from Navés et al. 2002) Antonia Domínguez Miguela

23 Experiential learning
Task- work includes: hands-on tasks, Experiential learning, Problem-solving tasks, etc. (Adapted from Navés et al. 2002) Antonia Domínguez Miguela

24 Cognitive skills identifying, comparing, drawing conclusions,
Cognitive abilities and processes such as identifying, comparing, drawing conclusions, inferring finding similarities and differences,... (Adapted from Navés et al. 2002) Antonia Domínguez Miguela

25 Collaborative learning, Autonomous learning and Self-directed learning
(Adapted from Navés et al. 2002) Antonia Domínguez Miguela

CLIL is a tool for teaching and learning of content and language. Language teachers: Support content teachers Help students to gain the language needed to manipulate content from other subjects Reinforce the acquisition of content Incorporates the vocabulary, terminology and texts from those other subjects Helps develop learning skills Antonia Domínguez Miguela

27 Content goals are supported by language goals
Injecting content into language classes will also help improve language learning Students are likely to learn more if they are not simply learning language for language’s sake, but using the language to accomplish concrete tasks and learn new content Content goals are supported by language goals Weekly agreement on language goals (with the content teachers) Working through cross-curricular themes and project Foster the development of creative and critical thinking Antonia Domínguez Miguela

28 Development of creative and critical thinking
Appreciating Assigning Associating Classifying Combining Committing Comparing Condensing Converting Defining Describing Antonia Domínguez Miguela

29 Development of creative and critical thinking
Designating Discriminating Extending Identifying cause and effect Imaging Linking Observing Predicting Reconciling Roleplaying Separating Selecting Triggering Antonia Domínguez Miguela

30 Curricular Adaptation
Address techniques and estrategies related to discursive functions (needed on all areas) Priviledge topics from the other bilingual areas More oral activities Promote student intercultural exchanges Antonia Domínguez Miguela

31 TEACHER COORDINATION Organize interdisciplinary proje
Develop a general common linguistic competence Develop common projects to introduce values education and cross-curricular topics Develop and intercultural skills and abilities Collaborative work: promote intercultural debate Lead a general focus on multiculturalism Language teacher helps and coordinates subject teachers in developing materials, lesson planning and methodology Antonia Domínguez Miguela

32 Role of language Teacher
Anticipate linguistic activities, grammar, etc.. Simplify content texts Formulate comprehension questions Summaries, oral expositions Writen productive activities Promote student’s linguistic reflection Develop communicative skills to deal with content area texts Choose FL contents related to the Foreign culture Develop cognitive skills Antonia Domínguez Miguela

33 FL teaching strategies
Work together and guide the content teacher about: Warming-up activities Word activation How to exploit a text Comprehension activities How to deal with new vocabulary How to promote oral activities Turn-taking, conversational skills Antonia Domínguez Miguela

34 FL teaching strategies
Strategies for summarising, describing, analysing, arguing, expressing an opinion, etc.. Develop ‘macrofunctions’ (functional use of oral discourse): Description Narration Text commentary Exposition Explanation Presentation Instruction Argumentation persuasion Antonia Domínguez Miguela

35 FL teaching strategies
Encourage FL use in the classroom Rewarding FL use Oral game Using stickers (young students) Using yellow and red cards Encourage repetition Encourage peer correction/evaluation Encourage students’ learning autonomy Pair/group work Antonia Domínguez Miguela

36 Using content materials in the FL classroom
Use texts about other areas Work on the features of the text: Linguistic complexity Types of texts Discourse structure Outline and presentation Practise pronunciation Check spelling Antonia Domínguez Miguela

37 Máster Secundaria

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