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+ DIFFERENCES BY GENDER IN METHODS FOR SUICIDE F. Stephen Bridges, Ed.D. and Karla A. Caillouet, M.S. Department of Health, Leisure, and Exercise Science.

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Presentation on theme: "+ DIFFERENCES BY GENDER IN METHODS FOR SUICIDE F. Stephen Bridges, Ed.D. and Karla A. Caillouet, M.S. Department of Health, Leisure, and Exercise Science."— Presentation transcript:

1 + DIFFERENCES BY GENDER IN METHODS FOR SUICIDE F. Stephen Bridges, Ed.D. and Karla A. Caillouet, M.S. Department of Health, Leisure, and Exercise Science University of West Florida

2 + Presentation objectives Study background Methods Purpose of study, source of data, suicide mechanisms, & statistical analysis Results Conclusions References

3 + Study background Examined the rates of suicide between 1949 and 1989 in West Germany. Reported a close relationship in West Germany between overall rate of suicide and the % of suicides using low-threshold suicide methods, i.e. the use of firearms and poisoning by solids, liquids, or gas. Wiedenmann and Weyerer (1993)

4 + Study background Lester (1995) examined the generality of this West German result using data from England & Wales ( ), the US ( ), & Japan( ). These results were replicated by Lester (1995) except when using data from Japan. For Japan, the overall rate of suicide was strongly associated with the rate of suicide using high-threshold methods, i.e., cutting & stabbing, jumping from a high place, use of blunt object, & drowning. Lester (1995)

5 + Study background Explored gender differences for rates of suicide. Like in previous studies, Lester (1996) categorized methods for suicide into two categories or groups (Wiedenmann & Weyerer, 1993; Lester, 1995). 1. Methods for suicide that require modern technology (low-threshold), i.e., use of poisons, gas, and firearms. 2. Methods for suicide that use more traditional methods, i.e., those not requiring modern technology such as hanging, drowning, jumping, and stabbing (high-threshold). Lester (1996)

6 + Lester, 1996 Two-part study consisting of: An Ecological design: Dr. David Lester examined national rates of suicide per 100,000 population. He compared rates of suicide for men & women across 25 nations in 1980 (Lester, 1996). A Time Series design: Examined US rates of suicide for men & women for the 1962 to 1989 time period.

7 + Purpose of current study To determine if there are any differences by gender for rates of suicide using 2 methods: Those requiring modern technology to commit suicide. Those not requiring modern technology to commit suicide. Ecological Design: Explored gender variation in rates of suicide across US states* in Time Series Design: Explored gender variation in rates of suicide over time in the US from 1999 to 2009.

8 + Data were obtained from the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention using the CDC WONDER Online Database (2012) Data Source

9 + Mechanisms of suicide used by men and women Poisons Gas Firearms Hanging Drowning Jumping Stabbing Technological Non-technological

10 + Statistics Independent t Test

11 + Results for Lester (1996) & current study The means for the ‘frequency of use’ of modern technological methods for suicide among men were higher than those for women. Ms = versus 3.85; t 24 = 2.28, two-tailed p <.05 (1980) Ms = vs 3.43; t 57 = 14.90, two- tailed p <.001 (2000) The means for the ‘frequency of use’ of non-technological methods for suicide among men were higher than those for women. Ms = versus 4.67; t 24 = 4.81, p <.001 Ms = 3.83 vs 0.75; t 49 = 16.62, p <.001 The means for the ‘frequency of use’ of modern technological methods for suicide among men were higher than those for women. Ms = versus 4.52; t 27 = 26.68, p <.001 (1962 to 1989) Ms = versus 3.16; t 20 = 95.30, p <.001 The means for the ‘frequency of use’ of non-technological methods for suicide among men were higher than those for women. Ms = 3.71 versus 1.28; t 27 = 37.73, p <.001. Ms = 4.85 vs 1.13; t 12 = 22.02, p <.001 Ecological DesignsTime-Series Design

12 + Conclusions Rates of suicide were higher for men than for women, regardless of whether methods used were dependent upon modern technology or less technological methods, both in a study of the US from and across 50 US states in 2000.

13 + References Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, National Center for Health Statistics. Underlying Cause of Death on CDC WONDER Online Database, released Data for year 2009 are compiled from the Multiple Cause of Death File 2009, Series 20 No. 2O, 2012, Data for year 2008 are compiled from the Multiple Cause of Death File 2008, Series 20 No. 2N, 2011, data for year 2007 are compiled from Multiple Cause of Death File 2007, Series 20 No. 2M, 2010, data for years data are compiled from Multiple Cause of Death File , Series 20, No. 2L, 2009, and data for years are compiled from the Multiple Cause of Death File , Series 20, No. 2J, Accessed at on May 22, :12:08 PM Lester, D. (1996) Gender differences in methods for suicide. Perceptual and Motor Skills, 82, Lester, D. (1995) The impact of availability, attraction and lethality of suicide methods on suicide rates in Germany. Acta Psychiatrica Scandinavica, 92, 318. Wiedenmann, A., & Weyerer, S. (1993) The impact of availability, attraction and lethality of suicide methods on suicide rates in Germany. Acta Psychiatrica Scandinavica, 88,


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