Presentation on theme: "IWRM as a Tool for Adaptation to Climate Change"— Presentation transcript:
1IWRM as a Tool for Adaptation to Climate Change Basic Principles and Elements of Adaptation StrategiesIWRM as a Tool for Adaptation to Climate Change
2Goal and objectives of the session At the end of this session, participants will:Be able to identify the main principles and processes that have been proposed for the process of preparing adaptation strategiesKnow major sources of substantive guidance for adaptation planningBe able to identify the linkages between adaptation plans and mitigation plans, as well as possible conflicts between the two.
3What is adaptation? Adaptation is a process by which individuals, communities and countriesseek to cope with the consequences ofclimate change, including climate variability.It should lead to harmonization with country’s morepressing development priorities such aspoverty alleviation, food securityand disaster management.
4VariationsProactive adaptation – ‘no regrets’ – strategic planning, incremental implementation, and cost-effective.Autonomous adaptation – ad hoc, cumulative, tactical adjustments to demands, needs, and demographic patterns and technological advances and ecological constraints. Progress as data, events and uncertainties are clarified.Rational decision-making in the area of hard and soft solutions and their combination has to be based on a proper, permanent planning process.
6Basic principlesAction based on assessment and evaluation application of precautionary principle to be consideredAdaptation to short-term climate variability and extreme events is a basis for reducing vulnerability to longer-term climate changeAdaptation policy and measures are assessed in a socio-economic development contextAdaptation policy to take social, economic and environmental concerns into consideration and ensure that the needs of the present generation are met without compromising the needs of future generations.
7Basic principles -2-Uncertainty characterization required along the entire processConcept may not be well understood at political and local levelsStakeholders must be part of the impact assessment process to own the resultsCommunication strategy essential.
8Basic principles -3-Strong interdepartmental (interministerial) and intersectoral cooperationStakeholder involvement identification as part of the assessment processAcceptable levels of riskNo-regret and low-regret options as a priorityShort-, mid- and long-term measures to be clearly brought in sequence.
9Basic principles -4-Estimating costs of a measure is a prerequisite for ranking a measure and including it in the budget or in a wider adaptation programme. Cost of inaction?Avoiding maladaptation through strong assessment process, stakeholder involvement and considering the externalities of various adaptations.
11ProcessAssessing current vulnerabilityAssessing future climate risksFormulating an adaptation strategyMonitoring, evaluation and reviewEngaging stakeholders in the adaptation processAssessing and enhancing adaptive capacity.
12In WRM, the process involves Assessment of the status of all water resourcesSpecification of objectives for individual water resourcesPrediction of trendsAssociated assessment of risk for projects already takenSpecification of measures for those projects at risk of not meeting the objectivesMonitoring of the impacts of measures for further assessments and decision-making.
13Opportunities for adaptation Planning new investments, or for capacity expansionOperation and regulation of existing systems for optimal use and accommodating new purposes (e.g. ecology, climate change, vulnerability)Maintenance and major rehabilitation of existing systems (e.g. dam safety)Modifications in processes and demands (water conservation, pricing, regulation)Introduce new efficient technologies (desalination, biotechnology, irrigation, recycling, solar, etc.).
14Steps for an adaptation project Scope project and define objectiveEstablish a project teamReview and synthesise existing informationDesign project for adaptation.
15Steps Scope project and define objective Establish a project team Establish the stakeholder processPrioritise the key systemReview the policy processDefine project objectivesDevelop a communication planEstablish a project teamReview and sysnthesise existing informationDesign project for adaptation
16Setting objectives of an adaptation project Increase the robustness of infrastructure designsIncrease the flexibility and resilience of the natural systemsEnhance the adaptive capacityReverse trends that increase vulnerabilityImprove people’s awareness and preparedness for future climate changeIntegrate adaptation in development planning.
17Steps Scope project and define objective Establish a project team Review existing informationReview and synthesize existing informationDescribe adaptation policies and measures in placeDevelop indicators of vulnerability and adaptive capacity.Design project for adaptation.
18Steps Scope project and define objective Establish a project team Review and sysnthesise existing informationDesign project for adaptationSelect approach and methodsDescribe process for assessment of future vulnerabilityDevelop monitoring and adaptation planDevelop terms of reference for project implementation.
19Challenges to making adaptations Insufficient monitoring and observation systemsLack of basic informationSettlements in vulnerable areasAppropriate political, technological and institutional frameworkLack of capacityLow income.
20Adaptive capacity is dependent on: Economic resourcesHuman resourcesInformation and skillsTechnologyInstitutionsInfrastructureRegional and international cooperation.
21ConclusionsAdaptation to present climate variability and extreme events forms the basis for reducing vulnerability to future climate change.The adaptation strategy has to be developed within the development context of the system.Adaptation happens at various levels within the society – national, regional, local, community and individual.The adaptation process is as important as the adaptation strategy.
22Think about itWhat is the role of sectoral adaptation planning? What is its potential?Can you give examples of cross-sectoral adaptation planning?
26“Water, water everywhere … "… but not a drop to drink."Adapted from A.M. NoorianAdapted from A.M. Noorian
27Information, information everywhere ... … but none to help me thinkCurrent pressuresAcceptable level ofuncertainty for actionFuture impactsTiming of changesImmediate expected resultsAdapted from A.M. Noorian
28National Adaptation Programme of Action Objective: Serve as a simplified and direct channel of communication for information relating to the urgent and immediate adaptation needs of the LDCsNeeds addressed through projects and activities that may include capacity building and policy reformAvailable for some 38 LDCs to be taken into account when formulating IWRM plans!
29Nairobi Work Programme (2005–2010) Improve understanding and assessment of impacts, vulnerability and adaptation to climate changeMake informed decisions on practical adaptation actions and measures to respond to climate change on a sound scientific, technical and socio-economic basis, taking into account current and future climate change and variability.
30Areas of work under the Nairobi Work Programme Methods and toolsData and observationsClimate modelling, scenarios and downscalingClimate related risks and extreme eventsSocio-economic informationAdaptation planning and practicesResearchTechnologies for adaptationEconomic diversification.
32Energy and water development are interrelated Carbon energy source?Source: Jonch-Clausen,2007
33Water developments with serious energy footprints Desalination of seawater for water supply requiring huge amounts of energyLarge-scale pumping for irrigationLarge-scale pumping for inter-basin transfersCompeting water uses leading to reduced inflow to hydropower dams, as e.g. upstream irrigation, resulting in increased thermal energy production.Source: Jonch-Clausen,2007
34Energy developments with serious water footprints Major hydropower dams in dry tropical climates, resulting in large water losses and changes in downstream flow regimesProduction of first generation biofuels in tropical developing countries suffering water scarcity already, hampering achievement of the MDG targets on poverty and hungerShale oil development requiring huge amounts of waterEnergy crisis in Germany in 2003 due to inadequate availability of cooling water for nuclear power plants.Source: Jonch-Clausen,2007
35Sectoral information Economic information Information inputsClimate InformationHistorical data for trendsClimate predictionsClimate scenariosSectoral informationTechnological optionsSupply–demand situationsPhysical informationGeophysical informationSocial development scenariosEconomic information