Presentation on theme: "IWRM as a Tool for Adaptation to Climate Change Basic Principles and Elements of Adaptation Strategies."— Presentation transcript:
IWRM as a Tool for Adaptation to Climate Change Basic Principles and Elements of Adaptation Strategies
Goal and objectives of the session At the end of this session, participants will: Be able to identify the main principles and processes that have been proposed for the process of preparing adaptation strategies Know major sources of substantive guidance for adaptation planning Be able to identify the linkages between adaptation plans and mitigation plans, as well as possible conflicts between the two.
What is adaptation? Adaptation is a process by which individuals, communities and countries seek to cope with the consequences of climate change, including climate variability. It should lead to harmonization with countrys more pressing development priorities such as poverty alleviation, food security and disaster management.
Variations Rational decision-making in the area of hard and soft solutions and their combination has to be based on a proper, permanent planning process. Proactive adaptation – no regrets – strategic planning, incremental implementation, and cost-effective. Autonomous adaptation – ad hoc, cumulative, tactical adjustments to demands, needs, and demographic patterns and technological advances and ecological constraints. Progress as data, events and uncertainties are clarified.
Basic principles Action based on assessment and evaluation application of precautionary principle to be considered Adaptation to short-term climate variability and extreme events is a basis for reducing vulnerability to longer-term climate change Adaptation policy and measures are assessed in a socio-economic development context Adaptation policy to take social, economic and environmental concerns into consideration and ensure that the needs of the present generation are met without compromising the needs of future generations.
Basic principles -2- Uncertainty characterization required along the entire process Concept may not be well understood at political and local levels Stakeholders must be part of the impact assessment process to own the results Communication strategy essential.
Basic principles -3- Strong interdepartmental (interministerial) and intersectoral cooperation Stakeholder involvement identification as part of the assessment process Acceptable levels of risk No-regret and low-regret options as a priority Short-, mid- and long-term measures to be clearly brought in sequence.
Basic principles -4- Estimating costs of a measure is a prerequisite for ranking a measure and including it in the budget or in a wider adaptation programme. Cost of inaction? Avoiding maladaptation through strong assessment process, stakeholder involvement and considering the externalities of various adaptations.
Development of an adaptation strategy
Process Assessing current vulnerability Assessing future climate risks Formulating an adaptation strategy Monitoring, evaluation and review Engaging stakeholders in the adaptation process Assessing and enhancing adaptive capacity.
Assessment of the status of all water resources Specification of objectives for individual water resources Prediction of trends Associated assessment of risk for projects already taken Specification of measures for those projects at risk of not meeting the objectives Monitoring of the impacts of measures for further assessments and decision-making. In WRM, the process involves
Opportunities for adaptation Planning new investments, or for capacity expansion Operation and regulation of existing systems for optimal use and accommodating new purposes (e.g. ecology, climate change, vulnerability) Maintenance and major rehabilitation of existing systems (e.g. dam safety) Modifications in processes and demands (water conservation, pricing, regulation) Introduce new efficient technologies (desalination, biotechnology, irrigation, recycling, solar, etc.).
Steps for an adaptation project Scope project and define objective Establish a project team Review and synthesise existing information Design project for adaptation.
Steps Scope project and define objective Establish the stakeholder process Prioritise the key system Review the policy process Define project objectives Develop a communication plan Establish a project team Review and sysnthesise existing information Design project for adaptation
Setting objectives of an adaptation project Increase the robustness of infrastructure designs Increase the flexibility and resilience of the natural systems Enhance the adaptive capacity Reverse trends that increase vulnerability Improve peoples awareness and preparedness for future climate change Integrate adaptation in development planning.
Steps Scope project and define objective Establish a project team Review existing information Review and synthesize existing information Describe adaptation policies and measures in place Develop indicators of vulnerability and adaptive capacity. Design project for adaptation.
Steps Scope project and define objective Establish a project team Review and sysnthesise existing information Design project for adaptation Select approach and methods Describe process for assessment of future vulnerability Develop monitoring and adaptation plan Develop terms of reference for project implementation.
Challenges to making adaptations Insufficient monitoring and observation systems Lack of basic information Settlements in vulnerable areas Appropriate political, technological and institutional framework Lack of capacity Low income.
Adaptive capacity is dependent on: Economic resources Human resources Information and skills Technology Institutions Infrastructure Regional and international cooperation.
Conclusions Adaptation to present climate variability and extreme events forms the basis for reducing vulnerability to future climate change. The adaptation strategy has to be developed within the development context of the system. Adaptation happens at various levels within the society – national, regional, local, community and individual. The adaptation process is as important as the adaptation strategy.
Think about it What is the role of sectoral adaptation planning? What is its potential? Can you give examples of cross-sectoral adaptation planning?
The situation to be avoided...
"… but not a drop to drink." Water, water everywhere … Adapted from A.M. Noorian
Information, information everywhere... … but none to help me think Current pressures Future impacts Acceptable level of uncertainty for action Timing of changes Immediate expected results Adapted from A.M. Noorian
National Adaptation Programme of Action Objective: Serve as a simplified and direct channel of communication for information relating to the urgent and immediate adaptation needs of the LDCs Needs addressed through projects and activities that may include capacity building and policy reform Available for some 38 LDCs to be taken into account when formulating IWRM plans!
Nairobi Work Programme (2005–2010) Improve understanding and assessment of impacts, vulnerability and adaptation to climate change Make informed decisions on practical adaptation actions and measures to respond to climate change on a sound scientific, technical and socio-economic basis, taking into account current and future climate change and variability.
Areas of work under the Nairobi Work Programme Methods and tools Data and observations Climate modelling, scenarios and downscaling Climate related risks and extreme events Socio-economic information Adaptation planning and practices Research Technologies for adaptation Economic diversification.
Energy and water development are interrelated Source: Jonch-Clausen,2007 Carbon energy source?
Water developments with serious energy footprints Desalination of seawater for water supply requiring huge amounts of energy Large-scale pumping for irrigation Large-scale pumping for inter-basin transfers Competing water uses leading to reduced inflow to hydropower dams, as e.g. upstream irrigation, resulting in increased thermal energy production. Source: Jonch-Clausen,2007
Energy developments with serious water footprints Major hydropower dams in dry tropical climates, resulting in large water losses and changes in downstream flow regimes Production of first generation biofuels in tropical developing countries suffering water scarcity already, hampering achievement of the MDG targets on poverty and hunger Shale oil development requiring huge amounts of water Energy crisis in Germany in 2003 due to inadequate availability of cooling water for nuclear power plants. Source: Jonch-Clausen,2007
Information inputs Climate Information Historical data for trends Climate predictions Climate scenarios Physical information Geophysical information Social development scenarios Sectoral information Technological options Supply–demand situations Economic information