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An integrated platform for high-accuracy word alignment Dan Tufis, Alexandru Ceausu, Radu Ion, Dan Stefanescu RACAI – Research Institute for Artificial.

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Presentation on theme: "An integrated platform for high-accuracy word alignment Dan Tufis, Alexandru Ceausu, Radu Ion, Dan Stefanescu RACAI – Research Institute for Artificial."— Presentation transcript:

1 An integrated platform for high-accuracy word alignment Dan Tufis, Alexandru Ceausu, Radu Ion, Dan Stefanescu RACAI – Research Institute for Artificial Intelligence, Bucharest

2 Arona, Exploiting parallel corpora in up to 20 languages2 COWAL  The main task of COWAL is to combine the output of two or more comparable word-aligners  In order to achieve this task, COWAL is also an integrated platform with modules for: tokenization, POS- tagging, lemmatization, collocation detection, dependency annotation, chunking and word sense disambiguation.

3 Arona, Exploiting parallel corpora in up to 20 languages3 Word alignment algorithms (YAWA)  YAWA starts with all plausible links (those with ll-score higher than 11)  Then, using a competitive linking strategy, retains the links that maximizes sentence translation equivalence score, and minimizing the number of crossing links  In this way, it generates only 1-1 alignments. N-M alignments are possible only with chunking and/or dependency linking available.

4 Arona, Exploiting parallel corpora in up to 20 languages4 Word alignment algorithms (MEBA)  MEBA iterates several times over each pair of aligned sentences, at each iteration adding only the highest score links.  The links already established in previous iterations give support or create restrictions for the links to be added in a subsequent iteration.  MEBA uses different weights and different significance thresholds on each feature and iteration step.

5 Arona, Exploiting parallel corpora in up to 20 languages5 Features characterizing a link  A link is characterized by a set of features, the values of which are real numbers in the [0,1] interval.  context independent features – CIF, they refer only to the tokens of the current link  context dependent features – CDF, they refer to the properties of the current link with respect to the rest of links in a bi-text

6 Arona, Exploiting parallel corpora in up to 20 languages6 Context independent features  Translation equivalents (lemma and/or wordform )  Translation equivalents entropy (lemma)  Part-of-Speech affinity  Cognates

7 Arona, Exploiting parallel corpora in up to 20 languages7 Translation equivalents (TE)  YAWA, TREQ-AL use competitive linking based on ll- scores, plus the Ro-En aligned wordnets  MEBA uses GIZA++ generated candidates filtered with a log-likelihood threshold (11).  The TE candidates search space is limited by lemmatization and POS meta-classes (e.g. meta-class 1 includes only N, V, Aj and Adv; meta-class 8 includes only proper names)  For a pair of languages translation equivalents are computed in both directions. The value of the TE feature of a candidate link is 1/2 (PTR(TOKEN1, TOKEN2) + PTR(TOKEN2, TOKEN1).

8 Arona, Exploiting parallel corpora in up to 20 languages8 Entropy Score (ES)  The entropy of a word's translation equivalents distribution proved to be an important hint on identifying highly reliable links (anchoring links)  Skewed distributions favored against uniform ones  For a link, the link feature value is 0.5(ES(A)+ES(B))

9 Arona, Exploiting parallel corpora in up to 20 languages9 Part-of-speech affinity (PA)  An important clue in word alignment is the fact that the translated words tend to keep their part-of-speech and when they have different POSes, this is not arbitrary.  Tried to use GIZA++ (replacing tokens with their respective POSes) but there was too much noise!  The information was computed based on a gold standard (the revised NAACL2003), in both directions (source-target and target-source).  For a link PA=0.5*(P(cat(A)|cat(B))+P(cat(B)|cat(A))

10 Arona, Exploiting parallel corpora in up to 20 languages10 Cognates (COG)  The cognates feature assigns a string similarity (using Levenstein distance) to the tokens of a candidate link  We estimated the probability of a pair of orthographically similar words, appearing in aligned sentences, to be cognates, with different string similarity thresholds. For the threshold 0.6 we didn’t find any exception. Therefore, the value of this feature is either 1 (if the similarity score is above the threshold or 0 otherwise).  Before computing the string similarity score, the words are normalized (duplicate letters are removed, diacritics are removed, some suffixes are discarded).

11 Arona, Exploiting parallel corpora in up to 20 languages11 Context dependent features  Locality  Links crossed  Relative position/Distortion  Collocation/Fertility  Coherence

12 Arona, Exploiting parallel corpora in up to 20 languages12 Collocation  Bi-gram lists (only content words) were built from each monolingual part of the training corpus, using the log-likelihood score (threshold of 10) and minimal occurrence frequency (3) for candidates filtering. Collocation probabilities are estimated for each surviving bi-gram.  If neither token of a candidate link has a relevant collocation score with the tokens in its neighborhood, the link value of this feature is 0. Otherwise the value is the maximum of the collocation probabilities of the link’s tokens. Competing links (starting or finishing in the same token) are licensed only and only if at least one of them have a non-null collocation score

13 Arona, Exploiting parallel corpora in up to 20 languages13 Distorsion/Relative position  Each token in both sides of a bi-text is characterized by a position index, computed as the ratio between the relative position in the sentence and the length of the sentence. The absolute value of the difference between tokens’ position indexes, gives the link’s “obliqueness”  The distorsion feature of a link is its obliqueness D(link)=OBL(SWi, TWj)

14 Arona, Exploiting parallel corpora in up to 20 languages14 Localization  This feature is relevant with or without chunking or dependency parsing modules. It accounts for the degree of the cohesion of links.  With the chunking module is available, and the chunks are aligned via the linking of their respective heads, the links starting in one chunk should finish in the aligned chunk.  When chunking information is not available, the link localization is judged against a window, the span of which is dependent on the aligned sentences length.  Maximum localization (1) is the one with all the tokens in the source window are linked to all tokens in the target window

15 Arona, Exploiting parallel corpora in up to 20 languages15 Crossed links  The crossed links feature computes (for a window size depending on the categories of the candidates and the sentences lengths) the links that were crossed.  The normalization factor (maximum number of crossable links) is empirically set, based on categories of the link’s tokens

16 Arona, Exploiting parallel corpora in up to 20 languages16 EVALUATION:Official ranking U.RACAI.Combined L.ISI.Run5.vocab. grow

17 Arona, Exploiting parallel corpora in up to 20 languages17

18 Arona, Exploiting parallel corpora in up to 20 languages18

19 Arona, Exploiting parallel corpora in up to 20 languages19

20 Arona, Exploiting parallel corpora in up to 20 languages20 Word alignment combiners  The COWAL(ACL2005) combiner is fine- tuned for the concerned language pair (rule-based)  The SMV filter is a language independent combiner (trainable on positive and negative examples)  Trade-off between human introspection and performance

21 Arona, Exploiting parallel corpora in up to 20 languages21 SVM filter  Combining word alignments requires the ability to distinguish among correct links and incorrect links of the two ore more merged alignments. SVM technology is specifically adequate for this task:  The SVM combiner is a classifier trained on both positive and negative examples.

22 Arona, Exploiting parallel corpora in up to 20 languages22 SVM filter evaluation MEBACOWAL MEBA filtered YAWA & MEBA filtered Precision Recall F-measure SVM filtering results. The SVM model was trained on NAACL 2003 gold standard.

23 Arona, Exploiting parallel corpora in up to 20 languages23 Romanian Acquis  The available Romanian documents were downloaded from CCVISTA (over Microsoft word documents)  We kept only files (some of them were different versions of the same document)  The remaining documents were converted into the same XML format of the ACQUIS corpus  From the Romanian files only 6256 are available for English in the JRC distribution

24 Arona, Exploiting parallel corpora in up to 20 languages24 Romanian Acquis Tokenization Sentence splitting POS-tagging Lemmatization Chunking Sentence aligning

25 Arona, Exploiting parallel corpora in up to 20 languages25


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