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M. Csanád at QM’04 Indication for deconfinement at RHIC M. Csanád, T. Csörgő, B. Lörstad and A. Ster (Budapest & Lund) Buda-Lund hydro fits to spectra and HBT radii Buda-Lund hydro model Buda-Lund fits to final RHIC Au+Au data A resolution of the “RHIC HBT puzzle” Indication for a hot center, T > T c Confirmation by independent measurement Prediction for new observables

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M. Csanád at QM’04 Quark Gluon Plasma “Ionize” nucleons with heat “Compress” them with density New state of matter Phases of QCD Matter Z. Fodor and S.D. Katz: T c = 172 ± 3 MeV even at finite baryon density, Cross over like transition. (hep-lat/0106002)

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M. Csanád at QM’04 Principles for Buda-Lund hydro model Analytic expressions for all the observables 3d expansion, local thermal equilibrium, symmetry Goes back to known hydro solutions in nonrel limit Separation of the Core and the Halo Core: hydrodynamic evolution Halo: decay products of long-lived resonances

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M. Csanád at QM’04 Buda-Lund hydro model The general form of the emission function: Calculation of observables with core-halo correction: Assuming special shapes for the flux, temperature, chemical potential and flow:

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M. Csanád at QM’04 Buda-Lund hydro model Invariant single particle spectrum: Invariant Buda-Lund correlation function: oscillating, non-Gaussian prefactor! Non-invariant Bertsch-Pratt parameterization, Gaussian approximation: Non-Gaussian BL form Gaussian BP approximation:

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M. Csanád at QM’04 R out /R side ratios at 200 GeV <- Buda-Lund prediction This reflects symmetry of the flow! (T. Csörgő & B. Lörstad, PRC54(1996)1390, NPA590(1995)465) Note also: R side /R long -> const (~1) as m t >>T 0 is another BL prediction Predicted by a dynamical model with supercooling, hep-ph/940636 Data from QM’02, Nantes for new PHENIX data, see M. Heffner’s talk

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M. Csanád at QM’04 Buda-Lund fits to RHIC data Calculation program packages : Version 1.0: Calculation of IMD & Radii, linearized saddle-point equations (NA22, NA44, NA49, prel. RHIC run-1) Version 1.4: Calculation for dN/ added Version 1.5: Saddle point found exactly in direction http://www.kfki.hu/~csorgo/budalund/ Version 2.0: Exact analytic calculation (in progress) All versions: Analytic expressions for all observables and simultaneous fits to all the observables

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M. Csanád at QM’04 BudaLund fits, 130 GeV RHIC data nucl-th/0311102, nucl-th/0207016

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M. Csanád at QM’04 BudaLund fits, 200 GeV RHIC data

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M. Csanád at QM’04 A 5 effect, T 0 > T c T 0 (RHIC) > T 0 (SPS) Indication for quarks & hard EOS B = 77 ± 38 MeV Comparing RHIC Au+Au to SPS results

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M. Csanád at QM’04 Universality of the Hubble expansion: u = H r Hubble constant of the Universe: H 0 = (71 ± 7) km/sec/Mpc converted to SI units: H 0 = (2.3 ± 0.2)x10 -18 sec -1 Hubble constant at Au+Au collisions with 200 GeV Method a) H RHIC = /R G ~ (3.8 ± 0.5)x10 22 sec -1 Method b) H RHIC = 1/ 0 ~ (5.1 ± 0.1x10 22 ) sec -1 Ratio of expansion rates: H RHIC / H 0 ~ 2 x 10 40 approx. the ratio of the ages of the objects, without correction for inflation... Comparison of expansion rates: RHIC and the universe

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M. Csanád at QM’04 New ways of plotting the results R side /R out ~ 1R side /R long ~ 1R out /R long ~ 1 1/R 2 side ~ m t 1/R 2 out ~ m t 1/R 2 long ~ m t same slopes ~ fully developed, 3d Hubble flow 1/R 2 eff =1/R 2 geom +1/R 2 therm and 1/R 2 therm ~m t intercept is nearly 0, indicating 1/R G 2 ~0, thus (x)/T(x) = const! reason for success of thermal models @ RHIC!

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M. Csanád at QM’04 The analysis of RHIC Au+Au data from BRAHMS, PHOBOS, PHENIX and STAR show: succesful Buda-Lund hydro fits (also at h+p and Pb+Pb at SPS) indication for deconfinement at RHIC (T > T c = 172 MeV by 3 at RHIC, but not at SPS) evidence for a developed 3d Hubble flow at RHIC SUMMARY

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M. Csanád at QM’04 Our answer: hot center, a fireball heated from inside If we assume a hot center, the difference between out and side vanishes Buda-Lund: T 0 > T c at RHIC = const. A solution of the RHIC HBT puzzle Confirmed in fits for the rapidity dependence of the elliptic flow, see poster (Flow-12) and nucl-th/0310040 Prediction: v 4 (p t ), v 1 (), v 3 ()

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M. Csanád at QM’04 Confirmation of hot center PHOBOS final data PRL 89(2002)222301 PHENIX final data PRL 91(2003)182301 v 2 (p t ) p t [MeV] v2()v2() poster Flow-12, nucl-th/0310040

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M. Csanád at QM’04 Prediction p t [MeV] v 2 (p t ), v 4 (p t ) v 1 (), v 2 (), v 3 ()

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M. Csanád at QM’04 Thank you for your attention.

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M. Csanád at QM’04 BudaLund fits to final run-1 RHIC data

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M. Csanád at QM’04 BudaLund fits to final run-1 RHIC data V1.0 fits to STAR & PHENIX data at midrapidity, Deta fixed V1.4 Rg fixed as data determine /Rg dependence only

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M. Csanád at QM’04 Fits to : new NA49 data (with Kaon correlation), NA44 data, CERES data at SPS. new run-2 data at RHIC NEXT TO DO

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M. Csanád at QM’04 Buda-Lund fits to NA44 Pb+Pb data A. Ster, T. Cs, B. Lörstad, hep-ph/9907338 Final data Absolute normalization, Boltzmann approx., ~ 1, 0 = 0 approx.

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M. Csanád at QM’04 Buda-Lund fits to NA49 Pb+Pb data A. Ster, T. Cs, B. Lörstad, hep-ph/9907338 Final data Absolute normalization, Boltzmann approx., ~ 1, 0 = 0 approx.

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M. Csanád at QM’04 Buda-Lund fits to NA22 h + p data N. M. Agababyan et al, EHS/NA22, PLB 422 (1998) 395 T. Csörgő, hep-ph/001233, Heavy Ion Phys. 15 (2002) 1-80

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M. Csanád at QM’04 Comparison of results of models Acceptable

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M. Csanád at QM’04 Comparison of results of models

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M. Csanád at QM’04 Comparison of results of models

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M. Csanád at QM’04 Comparison of results of models

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M. Csanád at QM’04 Comparison of results of models

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M. Csanád at QM’04 Comparison of results of models

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M. Csanád at QM’04 Comparison of results of models

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M. Csanád at QM’04 Comparison of results of models

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M. Csanád at QM’04 Comparison of results of models ~ Acceptable

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M. Csanád at QM’04 Comparison of results of models Acceptable

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M. Csanád at QM’04 Comparison of results of models

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M. Csanád at QM’04 Comparison of results of models

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M. Csanád at QM’04 Comparison of results of models ~ Acceptable

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M. Csanád at QM’04 Comparison of results of models

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M. Csanád at QM’04 Comparison of results of models Models with acceptable results: nucl-th/0204054Multiphase Trasport model (AMPT). Z. Lin, C. M. Ko, S. Pal. nucl-th/0205053Hadron cascade model. T. Humanic. nucl-th/0207016 Buda-Lund hydro model. T.Csörgő. A. Ster, Heavy Ion Phys. 17 (2003) 295-312. nucl-ex/0307026Blast wave model. F. Retiére for STAR. nucl-th/02080683D hydro model. T. Hirano, & T.Tsuda. hep-ph/0209054Cracow (single freeze-out, thermal) model. W.Broniowski, A. Baran, W. Florkowski. Not shown here but acceptable:

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