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Accommodations and Modifications for Students with Hearing Loss

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1 Accommodations and Modifications for Students with Hearing Loss
Heather Hall KVEC Teacher of the Deaf and Hard of Hearing

2 Deaf and Hard of Hearing Students
Deaf and hard of hearing students have unique educational needs. Their hearing loss can and often does impact all instruction that uses language as a base. In our area most districts have an itinerant teacher for the deaf and hard of hearing, who travels through out the district or even multiple districts. This leaves the education of these students depending on not just the teacher of the deaf and hard of hearing but the general educator as well.

3 Responsibility for Educating Deaf and Hard of Hearing Students.
Because most districts have itinerant teachers of the deaf and hard of hearing the child spends most of his or her day without them. This means general educators must provide the bulk of education for these students. General educators usually are the primary teachers for these students.

4 I Can’t Sign What Am I Suppose to Do Now?
Some general educators can feel overwhelmed when they get a student with a hearing loss in their classroom. General educators can feel that they can not effectively communicate with these students to take on the role of primary teacher. Most colleges do not adequately prepare teachers to work with students with hearing losses in the general classroom or the significant language delays associated with it. Some may feel that if I can not talk to the kid how am I suppose to teach him or her.

5 Myths About Hearing Loss
Hearing aids do not fix the hearing loss! Sign language interpreters do not fix the language problems in school! The hearing impaired student is not the teacher of the deaf and hard of hearing kid!

6 I Have a Hearing Impaired Kid, What Do I Do Now?
First don’t panic! They are not aliens and are really just students with some special needs. Be open to the suggestions of the teacher of the deaf and hard of hearing, after all they are very familiar with these students and their needs. Don’t see them as a new problem to deal with but as a new frontier to explore. Ask questions and for help that is why the deaf and hard of hearing teachers are there. Arm yourself with knowledge about the student and their disability, it will help you help them.

7 How Can I Help My Student During Instruction.
Students with hearing losses need some special accommodations and modifications to have access to the instruction. Using these accommodations and modifications help your student learn in the general education classroom. Don’t be afraid to ask for help if you need it.

8 Defining the Different Types of Adaptations
There is a difference in the types of adaptations (accommodations and modifications) that are used in the classroom, so lets start by defining them both.

9 Accommodations: Accommodations focus on how students access and demonstrate learning (Colorado Department of Education, 1995). Accommodations do not significantly change the instructional level, content, or the performance criteria. The changes in process are made to provide a student equal access to learning, and equal opportunity to demonstrate what they know. For example, for the standard "The student reads effectively to understand a variety of material," appropriate accommodations might include: preferential seating; acoustical treatment of the room; use of an interpreter to explain the instructions for the reading assessment; extended time limits; and allowing students to sign their responses to an interpreter.

10 Modifications Modifications substantially change what students are expected to learn and demonstrate. These changes are made to help students participate meaningfully and successfully in learning. Examples of modifications for the standard "The student reads effectively to understand a variety of material" might be to allow the student to read a passage at a much lower grade readability level, or to use an interpreter to sign the entire reading passage to the student.

11 Lets Look at Some Adaptations in the General Education Classroom
Now that we have discussed what your role is and defined the different adaptations you use. REMEMBER YOU HAVE TO MATCH THE ADAPTATION TO THE STUDENT. IT IS NOT A ONE SIZE FITS ALL THING! EVALUATE EACH ADAPTATION TO SEE IF IT IS EFFECTIVE.

12 Environmental Seat student in best place to permit attending and participation. Give student a swivel chair on casters. Use a semicircular seating arrangement. Reduce noise and reverberation with carpeting, draperies, acoustic ceiling tile, and/or acoustical wall treatments. Use flashing lights along with bells for signaling class schedule. Use flashing lights for safety alarms (e.g., fire, tornado).

13 Input Use a radio frequency transmission unit (FM) system.
Stand where the student can read lips. Face the student when talking. Use an overhead projector. Employ an educational interpreter. Team teach with a teacher of students who are deaf or hard of hearing. Preteach important vocabulary and concepts. Modify class schedule to reduce fatigue (e.g., include opportunities for active involvement). Provide a study guide of the key concepts, questions, vocabulary, and facts when introducing new material. Include page numbers where information can be found in textbook.

14 Input (Con) Provide a copy of the teacher's notes.
Highlight key words or concepts in printed material. Supplement lesson with visual materials (e.g., real objects, pictures, photographs, charts, videos). Use graphic organizers to present material. Provide manipulatives for multi-sensory, hands-on instruction or activities. Use peer tutoring. Use a notetaker. Use cooperative learning experiences. Develop learning centers. Use games for drill and practice. Use concise statements or simplified vocabulary.

15 Input (Con) Use a "Buddy System" whereby another student restates the directions or helps the student who is deaf or hard of hearing stay on task. Cue student visually to indicate that someone is talking during class discussions or during intercom messages. Repeat information that has been expressed by a person out of view or delivered over the intercom. Write short summaries of the lesson or of the chapters of the textbook. Use a peer tutor, paraprofessional, or volunteer to review work, important concepts, vocabulary, and facts with the student. Use commercial software to provide practice and review material. Use captioned movies and television programs.

16 Input (Con) Divide and organize lengthy directions into multiple steps. Demonstrate directions to clarify what needs to be undertaken. Check for understanding by having the student restate the directions. Break long-range projects into short-term assignments. Post the date on the board when assignments and projects are due. Remind frequently. Increase the number of practice examples of a rule, concept, or strategy prior to assigning seatwork or homework.

17 Input (Con) Shorten length of assignments and provide additional opportunities for practice. Teach organizational skills and assist student to generalize these skills. Teach student reading comprehension strategies (e.g., textbook structures such as headings, subheadings, tables, graphs, summaries). Provide duplicate sets of materials for family use and review. Have student summarize at the end of the lesson. Use thematic instruction to unify curriculum

18 Output Allow more time to complete assignments.
Allow students to make models, role play, develop skits, and create art projects to demonstrate their understanding of the information. Allow written or drawn responses to serve as an alternative to oral presentations. Allow student to use computer/word processor. Use cooperative learning experiences to develop cooperative small group projects. Use peer tutors, paraprofessionals, or volunteers to work with student on task.

19 Social Teach hearing students to sign.
If the student uses an oral approach, teach hearing students how to position themselves so the deaf or hard of hearing student can lipread. Make books about hearing loss and deafness available. Invite deaf or hard of hearing adults to come to school and share stories. Implement a circle of friends program Structure activities and experiences for deaf and hearing students to work together. Teach units on social topics (e.g., friendship, avoiding fights, emotions, stealing, dating, dealing with divorce). Provide direct instruction on specific social skills (e.g., starting conversations, giving compliments, responding to criticism).

20 Behavioral Provide consistent expectations and consequences with regard to classroom routines and rules. Place general rules and behavior expectations on charts displayed in the room or on a sheet of paper placed on the student's desk. Use interest inventories to identify positive and negative reinforcers for each individual. Use assignment books and/or folders to increase organizational and memory skills. Provide regular feedback and check progress often.

21 Behavioral (Con) Home-school contracts -- develop a contract with student's family whereby when specific behaviors are demonstrated in school, the student receives a specified reinforcer at home. Send a daily or weekly report card home. Use corrective feedback (e.g., "I would like you to take out a book and read when you finish your work, rather than bothering the person sitting next to you."). Increase frequency of descriptive praise (e.g., "You really paid attention and stayed in your seat for the past 15 minutes."). Use a behavioral contract (written agreement between teacher and student regarding student behavior and agreed-upon consequences).

22 Behavioral (Con) Use response cost procedures (taking away a privilege, points, or reward). Use time out. Limit the number of distractions by establishing an isolated work/study area. Teach student anger control strategies.

23 Evaluation Use peer tutor, paraprofessional, or volunteer to work with student to review for test. Allow test items to be signed to the student and the student to respond in sign. Allow tests to be taken with teacher or paraprofessional who works with students who are deaf or hard of hearing. Provide extra time to complete tests and quizzes. Allow test items to be read to the student. Modify vocabulary used in test items to match student abilities. Modify the number of test items.

24 Evaluation (Con) Provide short tests on a more frequent basis.
Chart progress or lack of progress. Provide additional information to explain test questions and instructions. Allow student to use notes/study guide/textbook on tests. Evaluate daily work/participation in addition to tests. Use projects or portfolios in lieu of tests. Provide graphic cues (e.g., arrows, stop signs) on answer forms. Give alternative forms of the test (e.g., matching, multiple choice questions, fill in the blank, true/false questions, short answer questions, essay questions). Teach test-taking skills.

25 Grading Use IEP as the criteria for grade.
Develop contract as basis for grade. Use a pass/fail system. Write descriptive comments and give examples regarding student performance. Use a checklist of competencies associated with the course and evaluate according to mastery of the competencies.

26 No That is Not All I have presented only a few adaptations that may be used for deaf and hard of hearing students there are many more out there. See what works for your student, it may take some experimentation to figure this out. Don’t be afraid to ask for help or suggestions if you get stuck. Share the wealth, if you have found something that helps the student.

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