Presentation on theme: "Strategies for College Success"— Presentation transcript:
1Strategies for College Success University Learning CenterUniversity of Arizona
2IntroductionThe purpose of this course is to expose you to various strategies and techniques that will enable you to become a successful student in the postsecondary environment
3Course Contents Section 1: Self-assessment and Self-management Steps in Successful Goal Setting and AchievementLearning StylesAnxiety/Stress Management
4Course Contents Section 2: Study Skills Development Time Management Memory TechniquesMethods of Reading College TextbooksNote Taking StrategiesExam Preparation TipsTest Taking StrategiesInternet Resources
6Lesson 1: Goal Setting and Achievement What we’ll be covering:characteristics of goalshow to break down goalswhere goal setting can go wrong
7Goals should be... Realistic The goals of winning a marathon after two weeks of training is an unrealistic goal. Use what you’ve accomplished in the past to set a reasonable goal for the future.
8Goals should be... Self-chosen You are much more likely to achieve a goal that you set for yourself than one that has been set for you
9Goals should be... Moderately difficult A goal that is too hard or too easy will decrease your motivation and won’t show you what you’re really capable of accomplishingUse what you’ve accomplished in the past as a guide
10Goals should be... Specific For example, getting an “A” in Math and a “B” in Geography is a lot more specific than just saying that you would like to get good grades this semester
11Goals should be... Measurable You’re more likely to give up if you can’t see any progress toward your goalFor example, getting an “A” on your midterm is measurable progress toward getting an “A” in the class.
12Goals should be... Positive Say what you do want to accomplish instead of what you don’t want to do.For example, try “I will attend all classes,” instead of “I won’t skip any classes.”
13Goals should be... Flexible If it looks like you can’t reach your original goal, be flexible and redraw your plan
14Goals should be... Associated with a deadline When do you plan on accomplishing this goal, in a month, day, or year?
15Goals should be... Written down It will serve as a better reminder to keep you motivated
16Where goal setting can go wrong When goal setting is disorganizedFor example, keep personal and academic goals separate
17Where goal setting can go wrong When goals are unrealisticFor example, becoming a company CEO immediately after graduation is an unrealistic goal
18Where goal setting can go wrong When you set goals that are ‘beyond’ your controlFor example, winning the lottery is definitely beyond your control
19Where goal setting can go wrong When goals are vagueFor example, “becoming successful” or “becoming a better student” are not clear goals to work toward.
20Where goal setting can go wrong When you set too many goalsFor example, at any one time you should focus on achieving only three or four goals
22SummaryGoals with certain characteristics will enable you to be more successful in goal setting and achievement.Breaking down large goals into parts will help you to see what steps you will need to complete on the way to accomplishing your goal
23Homework assignment: Apply what you’ve learned set an academic or personal goalselect one personal or academic long-term goal and break it down to the steps you will need to achieve in the next year, next 6 months, next month, next week, and tomorrow
24Lesson 2: Learning Styles What we’ll be covering:What is a learning style?How you develop a learning style?What’s your learning style?How information on your learning style can help to improve your learning
25What is a learning style? an individuals’ characteristic and preferred way of gathering, interpreting, organizing and thinking about information. Your style includes the type of environments you like to learn in, your preferences for working with others, and the way you perceive information.no single style of learning has been shown to be better than any other
26How do you develop a learning style? learning styles develop over time as a result of an individual’s inherent preferences and experience with his/her environmentthey can and do change over time
27How can information about learning styles improve your learning? You may be more satisfied and more productive if you are studying with methods compatible with your style. Right now you may be studying with methods incompatible with your style and not know it.You can experiment with building up less-preferred styles so that you can be equally comfortable with different tasks and in different learning environments.
28In class assignment: What’s your learning style? Complete the learning style assessmentView Suggestions for Studying and Learning based on learning style
29SummaryYour learning style influences the way that you perceive and process information. By knowing your learning style, you can employ methods and strategies to make studying and learning more productive. Without this information, you may make studying and learning more difficult for yourself without even realizing it.
30Homework assignment: Apply what you’ve learned Write full description of how you like to learnAnswer the following questions: “How do I learn best?”, What time of day do I learn best?, What kind of environment do I learn best in?, Do I learn better alone or with others?What study strategies are (or would be) particularly helpful for you?How will you be changing your study methods now that you are aware of your learning style?
31Lesson 3: Anxiety/Stress Management What we’ll coverWhat is stress?What causes stress?Strategies to reduce stressStrategies for dealing with stress
32What is stress?Stress is the way that you react physically, mentally and emotionally to various conditions, changes and demands in your life.Many students experience varying levels of stress each semester.High levels of stress can affect your physical and mental well-being and academic performance.
33Symptoms of stress headaches nervous stomach change in appetite rapid breathingrapid heart ratesweaty palmsirritabilityanxietyfatigueinsomniadissatisfactionangerdepressioninability to concentrate
34In-Class Assignment: Reflect on a stressful situation Write a brief description of a recent situation that caused you stress. Summarize your mental, emotional and physical states at the time.
35What causes stress?Anxiety: uneasiness and distress about future uncertainties
36What causes stress? Changes in life’s expectations or demands Ex. Marriage, divorce, pregnancy, illness, bills, increasing demands of a university course load
37What causes stress?Disorganization: feeling unprepared and powerless
38What causes stress? Physical Constraints Ex. Physical exhaustion, lack of good exercise and diet strategies
39What causes stress?Time constraints: multiple projects and deadlines
40In-Class Assignment: Self-assessment Take the anxiety/stress assessmentUse the results of this assessment to pinpoint specific causes of stress in your life. What (if any) control do you have over these areas of your life?Make a list of things that you can do to lessen your stress.
41Strategies to reduce stress Take control- manage your time instead of letting it manage you. Use a to-do list, follow a written plan, set goals and follow through.Procrastination is a major cause of stress. Make a realistic list of things you need to do each day. Start doing the most important things first. That way, even if you don’t finish the list, you get the most important things done.
42Strategies to reduce stress Take a breakSometimes it is better to get away from the situation for a short time- take a brisk walk, focus on pleasant thoughts. Then, go back to the task feeling refreshed and ready to go tackle whatever it is you have to do.
43Strategies to reduce stress Work on your attitudePut things into perspective- try not to take yourself so seriously.Think positive- “If you think you will fail, or think you will succeed, you are probably right.” --Henry Ford
44Strategies to reduce stress Get helpSee your instructor, go to tutoring, and participate in study groups. See how to form a study group.Keep in touch with friends and family, and develop a support group.
45Strategies to reduce stress Physical stress busterseat right, exercise regularly and get plenty of rest
46Strategies to reduce stress Practice, practice, practiceBuild your confidence- do extra math problems, practice test-taking at home, rehearse your speech a couple of times before the presentation
47In-class assignment: Self-reflection Go back to the stressful incident that you described in the first part of the lesson and list some strategies for dealing with the situation, and some things you could have done to prevent it from being stressful. Also list some ways you can avoid a reoccurrence of such a situation in the future.
48Strategies for dealing with stress no one can avoid stress all the time. In a stressful situation, try these tips to help you overcome the effects of stress.
49Strategies for dealing with stress Join the crowdEven though you may think you are the only person in the world who is experiencing stress, the fact is that everyone experiences it sometime.
50Strategies for dealing with stress Talk to someoneFind someone you trust, discuss the problems and look for solutions
51Strategies for dealing with stress Put it in perspectiveChances are, this is only one small part of the rest of your life
52Strategies for dealing with stress VisualizeSit comfortably and think of a favorite place. Imagine yourself in a successful situation.
53Strategies for dealing with stress BreatheSit quietly, and breathe deeply and slowly. Continue for five or six breaths. It is calming and the extra dose of oxygen increases the brain’s thinking ability.
54Strategies for dealing with stress It’s all in your head... and shouldersRoll your head loosely in a wide circle. Repeat five times. Tighten right shoulder and raise it as far up as possible and hold, then relax slowly. Repeat with left shoulder. Repeat with both shoulders.
55Strategies for dealing with stress Go on a dietEating light and avoiding sugars can help with performance and lessen stress. In a stressful situation like an exam, have a light meal of mostly protein. Remember, a heavy high carbohydrate meal can put you to sleep.
56Strategies for dealing with stress Lighten upTake responsibility for your feelings. When you get angry, take a break and cool down before you act.
57Strategies for dealing with stress Use itA little stress is a good thing- athletes use it to increase performance. If you are experiencing a small amount of anxiety, it can help to keep you active and alert. Use it to increase your performance.
58SummaryStress is mental, emotional and physical tension, strain, and/or distressThe signs of stress are classic. You may get a headache, stiff neck, backache, become irritable, lose your temper, and you may feel exhausted and find it hard to concentrate.When these symptoms appear, recognize them as signs of stress and find a way to deal with them. Just knowing why you’re feeling the way that you are may be the first step in coping with the problem.
59Homework assignment: Apply what you’ve learned Write about a situation where you would normally experience a high level of stress, (i.e. taking a test, giving a presentation, etc). Is the stress a bad thing? Can is be used to increase your performance? How would you do this? What coping strategies can you use to help you deal with the situation?
61Lesson 4:Time Management What we’ll be covering:advantages to good time managementassess your time management skillscreate your ultimate schedulemaking to-do lists
62Time Management Why is time management important? one of the most important skills for beginning college studentsbeing able to accomplish your goals depends, in part, on your ability to make the most efficient use of the time that you havegood time management skills can actually save you time
63In class assignment: Assess your time management skills Complete the ‘Are You Using Your Time Wisely’ assessmentWhat areas of time management are you strong in?What areas could you improve?
64Time Management Tips Monitor your time If you feel like you don’t have enough time, spend a few days monitoring your time to see exactly how it is spentdownload Where Does the Time Go?
66Steps to making to-do lists Write a list of activities that you want or need to accomplish todayRemember to prioritize and list the most important tasks firstCheck to see if there are any activities that you can accomplish at the same time
67Steps to making to-do lists (cont.) Write down how long you anticipate it will take you to get the task doneWrite down when you will start each activity
68Making to-do lists: Know your options Do it now- the most important things with approaching deadlines need to be done firstSchedule it- you can break up large tasks into smaller parts and schedule each partAsk someone else to do it- in a study group or team, each person can be responsible for a portion of the projectTrade tasks- for example, you run the errands while your roommate cleans the apartment
69In class assignment: Practice making a to-do list view a sample to-do listthink of the things that you would like to accomplish for tomorrowuse the steps we discussed as a guide in creating your list
70Time Management Tips Use a planner a planner can be an effective and easy way to help you organize your timelook at a number of different kinds of planners before you select one- some will help you more than otherschoose one that is easy to carry with youcommit to checking/updating it dailytry to include your daily to-do list in your planner
72In class assignment: Make a long-term calendar Download the Semester-on-a-Pagewrite in important dates like exams and due datespost it where you can see it, like by the phone or on the refrigerator
73Time Management Tips Try to be flexible Don’t overload yourself. Always leave some free-time for some last-minute additions
74Time Management Tips Avoid marathon study sessions a couple of hours each day will help you to remember more than eight hours at oncetaking the time to schedule study time will help you to avoid procrastination and reduce stressremember to schedule study time over 5-7 days instead of packing it all into one or two days
75Time Management Tips Use waiting time Waiting time is the time you spend in between meetings, classes, events, etc.
76In class assignment: How to effectively use ‘wait time’ One of the best ways to get more out of your day is to use ‘waiting’ timeCreate a list of 5 things that you can do in 10 minutesCreate a list of 5 things that you can do in 20 minutes
77Time Management Tips Learn to say ‘no’ Examples of good ways to say “no”Instead of: “I really should study”, say “You caught me in the middle of something important, I’ll call you later.”“I can’t go the movies tonight, but I can go on Saturday.”“Before I say yes, let me check my planner and get back to you.”
78Understanding procrastination When do you procrastinate?low interest or motivationlarge tasksWhat happens when you procrastinateincrease stresspoorer performance
79Reducing procrastination Break tasks into smaller, more manageable tasksfor example, writing a paper can be broken down into getting references, reading reference, writing an outline, creating a rough draft and completing the final copyWhen given an assignment, do some work on it right awaySpend some time studying each dayReward yourself along the way
80The Ultimate ScheduleDownload the sample Ultimate Schedule
81The Ultimate Schedule First, block off time for your FIXED activities classworkmeetings
82The Ultimate ScheduleSecond, block off time for your RITUAL activitiesmealstravel/commutesleepgrooming
83The Ultimate ScheduleThird, block off time for your PRIORITY activitiesstudyingtry to schedule 2 hours of study time for each hour spent in classexercising
84The Ultimate ScheduleYour FREE time is the time that remains, use it for:watching televisionshoppingsocializing
85SummaryAs time management skills develop, your stress and anxiety levels will go down and productivity will go upTime management tools which include day planners, to-do lists, weekly and long-term calendars will increase organization and help eliminate procrastination
86Homework assignment: Apply what you’ve learned Download the Weekly Schedule SheetUsing the steps for creating the Ultimate Schedule, design your ultimate schedule
87Lesson 4: Memory Techniques What we’ll be covering:things that can effect your ability to remember somethingbasic memory tipsstrategies to improve your memory
88What can effect your ability to remember something? distractionstime of dayyour comfort levelstressyour interest in the materialyour level of motivation
89Thirteen memory tips Learn from general to specific Before learning something new, get a general overview to use as a framework on which to hang specific details
90Thirteen memory tips Make it meaningful Why is this information relevant? What is the value in knowing this?If you don’t see the value-Find it! What kinds of situations could you be in that you would need this information?Use this as an opportunity to use strategies that will make you a better student
91Thirteen memory tips Create associations Relate what you’re learning to something that you already knowTry using analogies and metaphors
92Thirteen memory tips Learn actively Manipulate or change the information in some wayTry creating a mind map, diagram, pictures, or note cardsAlways put information that you’re trying to learn into your own words
93Thirteen memory tips Reduce distractions Turn off music, phone, television
94Thirteen memory tips Monitor what you’ve learned Check yourself to make sure that you’re learningTry self-testing yourself using the review questions at the end of the chapter or make up your own
95Thirteen memory tips Check your attitude and anxiety Find yourself thinking how much you hate the course or instructor? Know when your attitudes and/or anxiety are inhibiting learning and try to address them
96Thirteen memory tipsTurn abstract ideas into concrete examples
97Thirteen memory tips Distribute learning Use many short sessions for studying instead of one long session
98Thirteen memory tips Remember something else When you get stuck and can’t remember something, try to remember something that is related to it or what you were doing at the time that you learned it.
99Thirteen memory tipsStay away from studying similar topics at the same time to avoid confusion
100Thirteen memory tips Use mnemonics, or memory techniques Try creating a song or rhyme to help you rememberUse acronyms
101Thirteen memory tips Avoid studying material in the same sequence Try starting at the end or middle of the material
102SummaryBy using memory techniques you can take steps to learn and remember information more quickly and effectivelyMost memory techniques require that you change or organize the information that you need to learn. Repeated reading of text and notes is often not enough.
103Homework assignment: Apply what you’ve learned Pick five concepts that you will be required to know in a classApply any memory technique that we’ve discussed to each concept
104Lesson 5: Note taking What we’ll be covering: what to do before, during, and after classpicking out main points in a lecturethe Cornell Methodmind mapping
105What to do before class Pick the right notebook there are numerous advantages to picking a 3-ring binderhandouts can be inserted into the relevant sectionspages of notes can be removed and replaceddividers can be used to separate sections or topics
106What to do before class Read your textbook reading your textbook can help you to understand what is being discussed in lecture
107What to do before class Skim the notes from the last class this will refresh your memory and focus you for the next lesson
108What to do before class Make a commitment to attend all classes You may be getting only a partial set of notes if you copy from other studentsNote taking is a skill and you may be copying from someone who is a poor note taker and not realize it
109What to do during classTry to sit in the front, center portion of the classroomfewer distractionscan see and hear betterless likely to doze off
110What to do during classYou will need to identify the visual and verbal cues given by the professor that indicate an important topic is being addressedexamples of visual cues: gesturing, writing on board, underliningexamples of verbal cues: repetition, summaries, listing
111Identifying important points Think of three additional verbal cues that would indicate an important pointThink of three additional visual cues that would indicate an important point
112What to do during class Use a method of note taking Use Cornell Method Create Mind maps
113The Cornell Method Split page method of note taking Allows space for possible exam questionsAllows space for student reflections and summaryGood for self-testing
114Practice using the Cornell Method Download a sample page of notes using the Cornell MethodRecopy a page of your notes using the Cornell Method
115Mind Mapping Pictorial representation of ideas Good for visual learnersShows how topics and ideas are relatedUses both sides of your brain
116Steps to mind mappingIdentify the topic of the lecture or reading, place in the center and circle itBranch out the main ideas, each stemming from the main topicFrom each branch, mark key words and examplesDon’t be afraid to personalize it with pictures or symbols
117Mind Mapping Practice Download a sample mind map Practice creating a mind map
118What to do during class Identify possible exam questions Use them to self-test yourself later
119What to do after class Review your notes within 24 hours Are they complete?Do they make sense?
120What to do after classIdentify any questions that you may have and find the answersRe-copy or re-organize if necessary
121Note Taking PracticeWatch this short lecture and use the note taking strategies we discussed
122SummaryClass notes will be a better study tool for you if they have the proper content (the main points of a lecture) and are organized in a way that makes sense. Try using the methods that we discussed to accomplish those two crucial aspects of note taking.
123Lesson 6: Reading Textbooks What we’ll be covering:previewingannotating
124Why preview? improves concentration, memory, and understanding only takes 5 minutes to preview an entire chapterif you don’t have enough time to read before class, previewing may give you enough information to understand what is being discussed
125Steps to previewing material (1) Read the chapter titleThe title announces the topic or subject. Try to remember what you already know about the topic.
126Steps to previewing material (2) Read the introduction or first paragraphThis is a lead-in to the material and will often itemize what the chapter will cover. If it is long, read only the first 5 or 6 lines.
127Steps to previewing material (3) Read the closing paragraph or chapter summaryThese sections are often used to draw conclusions based on the facts that have already been presented or to restate key ideas.
128Steps to previewing material (4) Read questions or vocabulary at the end of the chapterThis section is used to test your knowledge of the material. Reading them beforehand alerts you to what is most important within the chapter.
129Steps to previewing material (5) Read each boldface headingHeadings separate chapters into main divisions and indicate important concepts. By looking at these headings, you can detect the organization of the chapter and the general approach of the author.
130Steps to previewing material (6) Look at any pictures, graphs, or chartsPictures, illustrations, or captions may help you clarify ideas and give direction to your thinking.
131Why annotate?Have you ever felt that you’ve been reading for hours and can’t remember what you’ve read?annotating can keep you focusedannotations tell you WHY important points are importantdownload a sample page of annotated text
132Steps to Annotating Text First, preview a chapter or subunit of textNext, read one or more paragraphs. Then stop (the amount will vary, so judge according to your text’s difficulty and organization).
133Steps to Annotating Text After reading, go back and underline the key word, phrase, or idea to which your annotation will refer.These key ideas often occur as: definitions, examples, lists, causes/effects, characteristics, similarities/differences, and names/dates.
134Steps to Annotating Text Check your annotations to be sure that they make sense and that you are not merely copying the text into the margins.In order to be most effective, your annotations must be in your own words, except in the case of technical definitions.
135Steps to Annotating Text If you have no annotating, you should have no underlining.
136Steps to Annotating Text Go on to the next paragraph or section. Remember, not every section of text will have a key concept that should be annotated, but every page or section usually does.
137SummaryReading your text numerous times is often not enough to insure that you have understood and retained the information covered.You must actively participate in the reading process by thinking about what you already know, identifying topics that you don’t understand and picking out important points that are likely to be on a test.
138Homework assignment: Apply what you’ve learned download text
139Lesson 7: Exam Preparation What we’ll be covering:key elements of exam preparationcreating and using note cardsthe Eight-day study plan
140What problems are you currently having with preparing for exams? Take a moment to complete “Exam Prep: A Self Check”What areas could you improve on?
141Key elements of exam preparation Know what the exam will coverIf you don’t know, then ask. Visit instructor’s office hours or ask over .
142Key elements of exam preparation Know what type of exam will be givenMatch the method of study to the kind of exam you will be given(hint: you wouldn’t use note cards to study for an essay exam)
143Key elements of exam preparation Avoid procrastinationIf you wait until the last-minute to study, you’ll remember less and stress more
144Key elements of exam preparation Use memory techniquesRemember the techniques we discussed?
145Key elements of exam preparation Make sure you’ve taken adequate notes and read the textGet any notes that you’ve missed
146Key elements of exam preparation Have the proper attitude
147Key elements of exam preparation Monitor your anxiety levelA little anxiety is good, but a lot will hurt your performanceRemember what we talked about in the stress management lesson?
148Key elements of exam preparation Don’t be afraid to ask questionsAsk during class, over , at tutoring and in your study group
149Key elements of exam preparation Look for (or create) practice tests and questions
150Creating and Using Note Cards When note cards are a good ideawhen you are a visual learnerwhen you will be given an objective test
151Creating and Using Note Cards Using them the right wayfrequently shuffle the cards to keep from learning them in orderuse only one concept per card- they aren’t designed to hold moreuse your own words- by putting concepts in your own words, you’re actively learning while you create themtake out the ones you know until the final review- don’t waste your time studying things you already know
152The Eight Day Study Plan download the Eight-Day Study Plan
153SummaryRe-reading your text and notes is often not enough to prepare you for an exam. You will need to have good study strategies and a good study plan.It’s also important that you know where to go for additional help, including instructor office hours, tutoring centers and preceptors.
154Homework assignment: Apply what you’ve learned Complete the Eight-Day Study Plan for one of your classesDownload the Eight-Day Study Plan Sheet
155Lesson 8:Test Taking Strategies What we’ll be covering:general test taking strategieshow to take different kinds of testslearning from your mistakeswhat to do when you don’t know the answer
156General test-taking strategies Try to ignore other test takers (before and during the test)Sit in your usual seat, if possibleBring all necessary materials
157General test-taking strategies Listen carefully to directionsIf something is vague or hard to read, stop and ask the instructor for clarificationAnswer the easiest questions first, mark and postpone the harder questionsChange your answer only if you’re absolutely sure the second answer is correct
158General test-taking strategies Look over the test and budget your time accordinglyLeave time to review your work
159Suggestions for objective tests Circle or underline clue words like all, every, none, always, etc.Watch for negatives
160Suggestions for answering essay questions use pencil or erasable penread the questions carefully and underline key wordscreate an outline in the margin of what you’d like to saybegin your answer by rephrasing the questionin the next sentence announce what you’ll be saying in the rest of your answerdevote a paragraph to each of the main points
161Suggestions for answering essay questions save time to check for the following:completeness and claritypunctuation and word usagespellingneatnessdid you answer the question?
162Suggestions for computational exams as soon as you receive your test, jot down any formulas you needed to memorizetry drawing a picture if you’re stucktry to estimate the answer
163After the test..learning from your mistakes don’t just look at WHAT you missed, but look at WHY you missed it!mastery of information: you didn’t study properly and don’t know the materialthinking gap: you misunderstood what you were being askedmethod of test taking: you made some bad mistakes like reading too quickly and missing key wordsreaction to situation: test anxiety got the better of you
164Correcting “mastery of information” mistakes Go back and look at how you studied. What do you need to change? Did you give yourself enough time? Are there other study strategies that would work better?
165Correcting “thinking gap” mistakes Next time, raise your hand and ask your professor or t.a. to rephrase the question. Keep asking until you feel that you fully understand the question.
166Correcting “method of test taking” mistakes Read/listen to the directions carefullyForce yourself to slow down and read the questions carefullyIdentify the key words in the questionsRead all answers before you select one
167Stress reduction and management have a study planget some exerciseproper nutritionkeep a positive attitudeget enough rest
168What can you do when you don’t know the answer? look for wording in the question that may give you an ideasee if the answer appears somewhere else in the examtry to eliminate some answers before guessingplug in numbers to see if they generate a possible solution
169SummaryYou should approach different kinds of tests in different ways. Even if you don’t know the answer, effective test-taking strategies can increase your chances of guessing it.If you are not getting the grades that you expected, check to see where you are making mistakes.
170Homework assignment: Apply what you’ve learned get a copy of a test that you’ve already takencode your mistakes using the categories we’ve discussedwrite a plan of how you plan to address these mistakes in the future
171Lesson 9: Internet Resources What we’ll be covering:how to conduct a searchsome of our favorite sites