Presentation on theme: "SYNTAXONOMIC NOVELTIES ON SALT MARSHES FROM WEST IBERIAN PENINSULA José Carlos Costa*, Carlos Neto**, Tiago Monteiro-Henriques*, Pedro Arsénio*, Estevão."— Presentation transcript:
SYNTAXONOMIC NOVELTIES ON SALT MARSHES FROM WEST IBERIAN PENINSULA José Carlos Costa*, Carlos Neto**, Tiago Monteiro-Henriques*, Pedro Arsénio*, Estevão Portela-Pereira**, Ana Caperta* & Jesus Izco*** * Instituto Superior de Agronomia, Technical University of Lisbon (TU Lisbon) ** Institute of Geography & Spatial Planning (IGOT), University of Lisbon ***Departamento de Botánica, University of Santiago de Compostela
The frontier between the Mediterranean and the Eurosiberian regions converge to the Portuguese northwest coastline. The biogeographical coastal terrestrial borderline was established on the Ria de Aveiro. Regarding salt marshes particularly, it is difficult to establish this limit sharply, since an evident physical barrier is lacking
European classification of salt marshes from Géhu & Rivas-Martínez (1983) Costa et al. (2009) corroborate the Géhu and Rivas-Martínez (1983) suggestion: the authors proposed the Tagus River salt marsh as the boundary between the Eurosiberian and the Mediterranean regions. As for the Iberian Peninsula, they considered the sub-zone Cantabrian-Atlantic belonging to the Eurosiberian territory, and two other sub-zones (Mediterranean- Atlantic and Mediterranean) separated by the Straits of Gibraltar, although using only community data, confirming that salt marshes eastward and westward are distinct.
Salt marsh physiognomy differs among tropical, mediterranean and temperate climates. In temperate climates vegetation is generally short, such as rushlands or halophytic grasslands (hemicryptophytes dominate, along with a few chamaephytes)
Mediterranean and desert tropical territories shrubs dominate (vegetation types are essentially nanophanerophytes, microphanerophytes, accompanied by chamaephytes and hemicryptophytes)
Limonio vulgare-Juncetum subulati [Arthrocnemo glauci-Juncetum subulati sensu RIVAS-MARTÍNEZ et al. (1980), COSTA et al. (1996) non Arthrocnemo glauci-Juncetum subulati Brulo & Funari 1976] Dominated by Juncus subulatus, in depression or abandoned saltpans, flooded for a more or less long period by brackish water derived from autumn and winter rainfall, completely dried out during summer. Saline-clayey soils, with a high sandy fraction, being the Iberian Arthrocnemion macrostachyi community that bear the longest period of flood. Characteristic floristic composition: Juncus subulatus, Halimione portulacoides, Sarcocornia fruticosa, Limonium vulgare, Juncus maritimus, Aster tripolium subsp. pannonicus, Arthrocnemum macrostachyum, Sarcocornia perennis subsp. alpini, Polygonum equisetiforme, Myriolimon ferulaceum, Inula crithmoides, Elytrigia elongata, Triglochin barrelieri, etc.
Limonium vulgare, Myriolimon ferulaceum, Frankenia laevis are differential species of this new community distinguishing it from Arthrocnemo glauci- Juncetum subulati and Elymo elongati-Juncetum subulati. Of difficult syntaxonomic positioning, as it contains plant species both form Sarcocornietea fruticosae and from Juncetea maritimi, we decided to assign it to the former, Arthrocnemion macrostachyi, Arthrocnemenion macrostachyi, as the characteristic species of Sarcocornietea are more frequent and because these communities occupy the higher parts of the salt marshes resisting to high salinity contents during summer.
Limonio vulgare-Juncetum subulati Thermomediterranean dry bioclimate Within the Tagus and the Guadalquivir rivers (Coastal Lusitanian-Andalusian Province, Mediterranean Region)
Triglochino maritimae-Sarcocornietum alpini Halophytic community dominated by Sarcocornia perennis subsp. alpini, Triglochin maritima and Halimione portulacoides occurring in salt marshes in areas north of the Tagus River, in sandy-silty zones, occasionally flooded by brackish water, in mesomediterranean bioclimate. Geovicarious of Halimiono portulacoidis-Sarcocornietum alpini, which belongs to the southeast of the Iberian Peninsula, south of the Tagus Estuary, in thermomediterranean territories. Triglochin maritima and Aster tripolium subsp. pannonicus are the differentials, on the other hand, the Mediterranean species Puccinellia iberica, Cistanche phelypaeae and Artemisia gallica are absent from the floristic composition. Contacts at lower elevations with Puccinellio maritimae-Sarcocornietum perennis and with Limonio-Juncetum maritimi at higher quotas.
sarcocornietosum alpini is typical puccinellietosum maritimae J.C. Costa, Neto & Izco subass. nova hoc loco with Puccinellia maritima and Plantago maritima as differential species
sarcocornietosum alpini Portuguese Divisory Sector (Coastal Lusitanian-Andalusian Province, Mediterranean Region) between Óbidos Lagoon and Mondego River. puccinellietosum maritimae north of the Ria de Aveiro reaching Galicia in Northern Galician-Portuguese Subsector (Cantabrian-Atlantic Subprovince, Atlantic European Province, Eurosiberian Region), Triglochino maritimae-Sarcocornietum alpini
Puccinellio tenuifoliae-Limonietum daveaui Chamaephytic association in sandy-brackish soils, only occasionally touched by brackish water during equinoctial tides, although occasionally flooded by fresh water during winter or springtime. Limonium daveaui, Puccinellia tenuifolia, Halimione portulacoides, Frankenia laevis, Juncus maritimus, Myriolimon ferulaceum are the most reliable species This association stands between Juncetea maritimi and Sarcocornietea fruticosae;.
between the Tagus River and S. Martinho do Porto (Tornada River) Divisory Portuguese-Sadensean Subprovince (Coastal Lusitanian-Andalusian Province, Mediterranean Region) Thermomediterranean subhumid bioclimate Puccinellio tenuifoliae-Limonietum daveaui
This association stands between Juncetea maritimi and Sarcocornietea fruticosae; however, we propose its inclusion in the Limonio ovalifolii-Frankenio laevis alliance, from low littoral Cantabrian-Atlantic order Glauco-Puccinellietalia, due to the presence of Puccinellia tenuifolia, Frankenia laevis, Juncus maritimus, Juncus acutus and Aster tripolium subsp. pannonicus. This alliance corresponds to the coastal prostate chamaephytic halo-nitrophilous communities reached by the highest tides.
Myriolimetum ferulacei Rothmaler 1943 nom. mut. [bas. Limonietum ferulacei Rothmaler 1943, sin. Inulo crithmoidis-Limonietum ferulacei Rivas-Martínez, Costa, Castroviejo & E. Valdés 1980] Dominated by the chamaephyte Myriolimon ferulaceum (=Limonium ferulaceum) accompanied by Inula crithmoides, Halimione portulacoides, Frankenia laevis, Puccinellia iberica, Artemisia gallica, etc. and Limoniastrum monopetalum in the Algarve In clayey or silty soils from salt marshes only inundated by the equinoctial tides or from calcareous and marly sea cliffs heavily sprinkled by the Atlantic Ocean waters during winter storms. It is included in the Limonion confusi alliance, Limonietalia order, due to its ecology.
Limonietum lanceolati Hemicryptophytic community, dominated by Limonium lanceolatum and Myriolimon ferulaceum accompanied by several plants of Sarcocornietea fruticosae In clayey or silty soils rich in schistose debris, only inundated during the highest tides. It occupies places relatively higher than the Inulo crithmoidis-Arthrocnemetum glauci and the Cistancho phelypaeae-Suadetum verae
Limonietum lanceolati Mira River and Cerca River (Aljezur), Coastal Vincentine District (Coastal Lusitanian-Andalusian Province) Thermomediterrean dry
Limonio algarvensis-Myriolimetum diffusi J.C. Costa, Lousã, Caperta & Neto ass. nova hoc loco Communities dominated by the chamaephytes Myriolimon diffusum (Pourr.) Lledó, Erben & Crespo (= Limonium diffusum (Pourr.) O. Kunze), Limonium algarvense and Limonium latebracteatum found in the Algarve Limonium latebracteatum was found for the first time in Portugal during this research. This phytocoenosis occurs in sandy well-drained soils, inundated only during the highest tides, under thermomediterranean dry bioclimate.
Occupies places relatively lower than the occupied by the Polygono equisetiformis-Limoniastretum monopetali association, usually between this and Cistancho phelypaeae-Suaedetum verae Although it resembles the Myriolimetum ferulacei association, its ecology is quite distinct as the latter occurs in clayey or silty soils both in salt marshes and in sea cliffs Limonio algarvensis-Myriolimetum diffusi
We propose the inclusion of this association in the Limonion confusi alliance, Limonietalia order due their ecology and floristic composition.
Limonio algarvensis-Myriolimetum diffusi Its area of distribution, so far, is restricted to the salt marshes of the Algarve (Algarvian District, Coastal Lusitanian-Andalusian Province)
SYNTAXONOMIC SCHEME SARCOCORNIETEA FRUTICOSAE Br.-Bl. & Tüxen ex A. & O. Bolòs 1950 nom. mut. Sarcocornietalia fruticosae Br.-Bl. 1933 nom. mut. Arthrocnemion macrostachyi Rivas-Martínez & Costa 1984 nom. mut. Arthrocnemenion macrostachyi Limonio vulgaris-Juncetum subulati J.C. Costa, Neto, T. Almeida & Lousã in J.C. Costa, Arsénio, Monteiro-Henriques, Neto, E. Pereira, T. Almeida & Izco 2009 Sarcocornienion alpini Rivas-Martínez, Lousã, T.E. Díaz, Fernández-González & J.C. Costa 1990 Triglochino maritimae-Sarcocornietum alpini J.C. Costa, Neto, Izco in J.C. Costa, Arsénio, Monteiro-Henriques, Neto, E. Pereira, T. Almeida & Izco 2009 sarcocornietosum alpini puccinellietosum maritimae J.C. Costa, Neto, Izco subass. nova hoc loco Limomnietalia Br.-Bl. & O. Bolòs 1958 Limonion confusi Rivas-Martínez & Costa 1984 Myriolimetum ferulacei Rothmaler 1943 Limonietum lanceolati Arsénio, J.C. Costa, Neto & Monteiro-Henriques in Neto, Arsénio & J.C. Costa 2009 Limonio algarvensis-Myriolimetum diffusi J.C. Costa, Lousã, Caperta & Neto ass. nova hoc loco JUNCETEA MARITIMI Br.-Bl. in Br.-Bl., Roussine & Négre 1952 Glauco-Puccinellietalia Beeftink & Westhoff in Beeftink 1962 Limonio ovalifolii-Frankenion laevis Arbesú, Bueno & F. Prieto 2002 Puccinellio tenuifoliae-Limonietum daveaui J.C. Costa, Neto & E. Pereira in J.C. Costa, Arsénio, Monteiro-Henriques, Neto, E. Pereira, T. Almeida & Izco 2009