Presentation on theme: "From Empire to Independence: 1754-1776 Part I An Overview of the issues that led to Independence."— Presentation transcript:
From Empire to Independence: 1754-1776 Part I An Overview of the issues that led to Independence
The British and French Fight for and Empire Longtime enemies, their final struggle occurred in North America. The French and Indian War was fought from 1754 to 1763. The winner would control the Ohio River Valley and access to Canada Far from home, both sides needed allies.
Differing Motivations….. The British believed the French were trying to fence them in and limit their access to the West. The French believed that if the British crossed the Appalachians, it would ruin their lucrative fur trade in the Ohio River Valley and Southern Canada. Native Americans groups were opportunists - siding alternately with both the French and the British to preserve their self interests. Colonists wanted access to the Ohio Valley and agreed to help the British.
Who fought Who? Ultimately more Indians sided with the French who were less interested in changing their habitat. The Colonists sided with the British who promised access to the Ohio Valley.
An end and a Beginning In 1763 the French surrendered They lost all of their North American possessions except Martinique and Guadeloupe The British, with substantial aid from the Colonists were victorious The Treaty of Paris marked the formal end to the war
The British now dominated North America They would now try and dominate the Colonists as well!
Review Quiz 1 What were the differing points of view that helped lead to the French and Indian War? Why did more Indian cultures support the French? What were two reasons for the colonists support of the British? How much land did France retain in North America? How do you think the war influenced relations between the Colonists and the British?
FROM LOYAL SUBJECTS TO REVOLUTIONARIES FROM LAW ABIDING BRITISH CITIZENS TO TERRORISTS FROM COLONISTS TO INDEPENDENCE WHY? PART II – THE ROAD TO INDEPENDENCE
REMEMBER THIS? The Proclamation of 1763 forbade colonists from moving west of the Appalachians. They had been promised this land in return for service in the F&I War.
Times had changed, attitudes had changed During the next 13 years a series of events would occur that would sever ties of loyalty and lead to Revolution The British wanted to dominate the colonists The Colonists would have none of it The Stamp Act, The Tea Act, The Currency Act, The Quartering Act, The Coercive Acts, The Intolerable Acts, The Boston Massacre Sons of Liberty, The Boston Tea Party, Lexington and Concord, Richard Henry Lees resolution, and finally…, The Declaration of Independence
Key Ideas and Events on the Road to Revolution! Proclamation of 1763 The Boston Massacre The Stamp Acts American Nationalism The Boston Tea Party Lexington and Concord
The Proclamation of 1763 Closed the Ohio Valley…Why? Pontiacs rebellion was a united Indian movement against British Rule. The British had neither the manpower or the money to protect the Colonists The Colonists saw it as the British reneging on a promise to allow expanded colonization
A series of events follows… Taxes and restrictions build Colonial Resentment Various Stamp Acts cause the price of imported goods to rise. The Quartering Act forces Colonists to provide Room and Board for British Soldiers Tax stamps placed on Goods
The Boston Massacre March 5, 1770 Sam Adams had been drinking with some friends in a bar He convinced them to go taunt the guards at the Boston Customs House The mob began to throw ice and rocks at a guard British soldiers came to his aid In self defense they fired into the mob
The Result…. Sam Adams has engraver Paul Revere immortalize the event Revere adds women and children to the Crowd to gather revolutionary support Coined as The Boston Massacre Lawyer John Adams defends the soldiers The Soldiers are acquitted
American Nationalism Colonists are now more American than British British Soldiers looked down upon them They had different interests A unique culture had evolved
The Boston Tea Party December 16, 1763 In response to the Tea Act Led by Samuel Adams The Sons of Liberty destroy a shipment of Tea by throwing it into Boston Harbor The British respond by closing Boston Harbor to all trade – strangling Boston
The First Continental Congress is convened! September 1774 Colonists agreed to boycott British goods until Boston Harbor was reopened A List of Demands and Grievances is sent to King George The Colonists unite in prayer
Lexington Encouraged by the Continental Congress, Minutemen stockpiled munitions April 18, 1775 – Gen. Gage marched 700 British troops towards Concord, Mass. 21 miles from Boston with instructions to seize the munitions Along the way at Lexington, they encountered 70 Minutemen Although the Minutemen agreed to disperse, a shot was fired (the shot heard round the world) The British responded killing 8 Minutemen
Concord Upon arrival in Concord the British found little useable munitions. The Colonists had been warned. The March back to Boston was a disaster
About 4,000 Minutemen ambushed the British Soldiers along the march back to Boston
Who really won these first battles? The British had defeated the Colonists at Lexington and Concord The Colonists humiliated the British along the march back to Boston. Guerilla tactics had stymied the Red Coats. Dozens were killed Now what would George do?
Lexington and Concord began the Revolution in 1775 What other events fed into the Revolutionary attitude of the time?
Common Sense Written by Thomas Paine in 1776 It clearly stated the logic behind the Revolution Should an island govern a Continent? What good are Kings? It sold about 150,000 copies 1 for every white man in the colonies
Independence? Formally introduced as a resolution by Richard Henry Lee in June of 1776 Who would write such a document? Wouldnt it be an act of Treason?
The Declaration of Independence Thomas Jefferson is credited with writing the first draft John Adams, Ben Franklin, Robert Livingston, and Roger Sherman assisted
July 4, 1776 After much debate over specific language, the Continental Congress ratified the Declaration. Heavily influenced by John Locke and other Enlightenment thinkers, it became the cornerstone of American Liberty.
Review Quiz 2 List 3 specific disagreements between the Colonists and the British Why were the events at the Boston Massacre altered? When was the Declaration of Independence written in relation to the Revolutionary war?
I Really hope this helped clear this stuff up!! Where would we be without the Greek ideas about Democracy?