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Extraction of Legal Definitions from a Japanese Statutory Corpus -- Toward Construction of a Legal Term Ontology Makoto Nakamura, Yasuhiro Ogawa and Katsuhiko.

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Presentation on theme: "Extraction of Legal Definitions from a Japanese Statutory Corpus -- Toward Construction of a Legal Term Ontology Makoto Nakamura, Yasuhiro Ogawa and Katsuhiko."— Presentation transcript:

1 Extraction of Legal Definitions from a Japanese Statutory Corpus -- Toward Construction of a Legal Term Ontology Makoto Nakamura, Yasuhiro Ogawa and Katsuhiko Toyama (Nagoya University)

2 First of all There wasn’t an English version of Japanese statutes until Some companies have their own database as the need arises...

3 Japanese Law Translation Database (JLT) Released in Advanced user interface Problems quantity quality

4 Problems of JLT Quantity 307/7,700 laws so far (<4%) ( ) Revision control wrt amendment laws Quality A number of translators Disunity of translation  law titles, legal terms, etc.  specific expressions

5 Example: Law Titles 一般社団法人及び一般財団法人に関する法律 (ippan shadan houjin oyobi ippan zaidan houjin ni kansuru houritsu) Act Concerning General Corporations and General Foundations Act on General Associations and Foundations Act on General Associations and Incorporated Foundations Act on General Incorporated Association and General Incorporated Foundation Act on General Incorporated Associations and General Incorporated Foundations Insurance Business Act (Act No.105 of 1995) Article 148 (4) The provisions of Article 78 (Liability for Damages Pertaining to the Actions of the Representative) of the Act on General Incorporated Associations and General Incorporated Foundations shall apply mutatis mutandis to an Entrusting Company......

6 Example: Variations of Translations この法律は、公布の日から施行する。 (kono houritsu wa koufu no hi kara shikou suru.) This Act shall be enforced from the date of promulgation. This Act shall come into effect as from the date of promulgation. This Act shall come into effect as of the date of promulgation; This Act shall come into effect as of the day of its promulgation. This Act shall come into effect on the day of promulgation. This Act shall come into force as from the date of its promulgation. This Act shall come into force as from the day of its promulgation. This Act shall come into force as of the date of its promulgation. This Act shall come into force as of the day of promulgation. This Act shall come into force from the day of promulgation. This Act shall enter into force on the day of its promulgation.

7 Problem of Quality Law titles in different ways for citation A variety of translations An identical expression should have an identical translation for the sake of the conservation of meaning. Need of a translation dictionary

8 Translation tools Terminology (dictionary) unification of translation 4,482 entries at the latest version Ontology systematic translation Translation Memory (Sekine et al., 2012) Statistical Machine Translation (Ogawa et al., 2013) Tomorrow!!

9 Purpose to construct a legal term ontology to provide legal terms and their explanations Approach automatic extraction application of natural language processing

10 Problems in This Study 1.What are legal terms? 2.Difficulty of Japanese text processing in the legal domain 3.Absence of a statutory corpus

11 1. What Are Legal Terms? Classification 1.Law titles 2.Legal definitions 3.Words in definitions 4.Important terms frequently used content words characteristic words 5.All words in laws Our target

12 ガス事業法(昭和二十九年法律第五十一号) 第二条 この法律において「一般ガス事業」とは、一般の需要に応じ導管 によりガスを供給する事業をいう。 Gas Business Act (Act No.51 of 1954) Article 2 The term “General Gas Utility Business” as used in this Act shall mean the business of supplying gas via pipelines to meet general demand. 1. What Are Legal Terms? Legal Definitions are explicitly defined in a law. consist of tuples of a defined term and its explanation.

13 2. Difficulty of Japanese Legal Text Processing NLP tools: low performance special terms syntactic rules peculiar to the legal domain outdated characters Simple methods for surface pattern recognition: sufficient frequent use of boilerplate expressions

14 3. Compilation of a Japanese Statutory Corpus includes all of the Japanese statutes consists of 9,915 acts that have been enacted up to 2012 since promulgation of the new constitution of Japan in 1947 includes OCR errors doesn’t follow error correction, or consolidation by amendment laws

15 Solutions of the Problems 1.What are legal terms? → We focus on legal definitions. 1.Difficulty of Japanese text processing in the legal domain → Simple methods work effectively. 2.Absence of a statutory corpus → We compiled a large corpus.

16 Extraction Method Simple pattern match from a legal text a)for independent sentences for definition a sentence for definition itemization b)for expressions parenthesized in a sentence an expression for definition the region of its explanation

17 a) Example of Surface Pattern Rules Input text: ガス事業法 第二条 この法律において「一般ガス事業」とは、一般の需要に応じ導管によ りガスを供給する事業をいう。 10 この法律において「ガス事業」とは、一般ガス事業、簡易ガス事業、ガ ス導管事業及び大口ガス事業をいう。 Gas Business Act Article 2-1 The term “General Gas Utility Business” as used in this Act shall mean the business of supplying gas via pipelines to meet general demand. Article 2-10 The term “Gas Business” as used in this Act shall mean a General Gas Utility Business, Community Gas Utility Business, Gas Pipeline Service Business or Large-Volume Gas Business. Pattern of Definitions (6 rules) / 「 (.+) 」とは、 (.+)( を、 | をいい、 | をいう。 | といい、 | という。 | とする。 )/ /”(.+)” (as used in this Act)? (shall mean|means) (.+)./

18 a) Example of Surface Pattern Rules Input text: ガス事業法 第二条 この法律において「一般ガス事業」とは、一般の需要に応じ導管によ りガスを供給する事業をいう。 10 この法律において「ガス事業」とは、一般ガス事業、簡易ガス事業、ガ ス導管事業及び大口ガス事業をいう。 Gas Business Act Article 2-1 The term “General Gas Utility Business” as used in this Act shall mean the business of supplying gas via pipelines to meet general demand. Article 2-10 The term “Gas Business” as used in this Act shall mean a General Gas Utility Business, Community Gas Utility Business, Gas Pipeline Service Business or Large-Volume Gas Business. Pattern of Definitions (6 rules) / 「 (.+) 」とは、 (.+)( を、 | をいい、 | をいう。 | といい、 | という。 | とする。 )/ /”(.+)” (as used in this Act)? (shall mean|means) (.+)./

19 a) Example of Surface Pattern Rules for Itemization Input text: 介護保険法 第七条6 この法律において「医療保険各法」とは、次に掲げる法律をいう。 一健康保険法 二船員保険法 ・・・ Long-Term Care Insurance Act Article 7 (6) The term “Medical Insurance Acts” as used in this Act means the following acts: (i)Health Insurance Act (ii)Seaman’s Insurance Act..... Pattern of Definitions for Itemization (8 rules) /( 次 | 左 | 式 )( の ( 各号 | いずれか ))? に ( 掲げる | 定める )/ /the following/

20 b) Example of Surface Pattern Rules for Parenthesized Definitions Input text: 民事訴訟法 第三十条4 第一項又は前項の規定により原告又は被告となるべき者を選定し た者(以下「選定者」という。)は、その選定を取り消し、又は選定された当 事者(以下「選定当事者」という。)を変更することができる。 Code of Civil Procedure Article 30 (4) Persons who have appointed a party to stand as a plaintiff or defendant pursuant to the provisions of paragraph (1) or the preceding paragraph (hereafter referred to as “appointers”) may rescind the appointment or change the party thus appointed (hereafter referred to as the “appointed party”). Pattern of Parenthesized Definitions / ( (.+?) 「 (.+) 」と ( いう。 | 総称する。 ) ) / /((.+?) referred to as “(.+)”)/

21 b) Extraction of Explanations Extracting an explanation corresponds to finding its starting point. Explanations are likely to start from the beginning of the sentence. We restrict our target to extraction of explanations satisfying this condition. Easy! 民事訴訟法 第三十条4 第一項又は前項の規定により原告又は被告となるべき者を選定 した者(以下「選定者」という。)は、その選定を取り消し、又は選定され た当事者(以下「選定当事者」という。)を変更することができる。 Difficult! If there is a parenthesis for a definition within 120 letters from the beginning without a comma or period, its explanation is from the beginning to the last letter before the parenthesis.

22 Experiments Extraction of legal terms and their explanations from: independent sentences for definition parenthesized expressions in a sentence The statutory corpus 3,131 / 9,915 statutes w/o all laws concerning amendment and repeal of pre-existing laws Evaluation: precision and recall

23 Evaluation Method Legal terms 1)as precise as possible 2)as many as possible Evaluation 1)Precision 2) Recall A B C Grey: the search space A: system’s response B: actual legal terms C: correct answers Statutory Corpus = |C| |A| = |C| |B|

24 Experimental Result Definitions# of Tokens # of Types PrecisionRecall in provisions5,2503, in parenthesis9,6246, Multiple defined terms JapaneseEnglish# of laws in provisions 中小企業者 small and medium sized enterprise operator 53 老年者 senile22 in parenthesis 旧法 former act178 施行日 effective date122

25 Legal Terms Extracted from the Electricity Business Act Defined termsExplanatory sentences Electricity Business General Electricity Business and Wholesale Electricity Business Electricity Utility General Electricity Utility and Wholesale Electricity Utility Wholesale Electricity Business Business supplying a General Electricity Utility with electricity to be used for its General Electricity Business for which the Electric Facilities that satisfy the requirements specified by an Ordinance of the Ministry of Economy, Trade and Industry are used Wholesale Electricity Utility Person who has obtained a license under paragraph 1 of the next Article to conduct a Wholesale Electricity Business General Electricity Business Business supplying electricity to meet general demand General Electricity Utility Person who has obtained a license under paragraph 1 of the next Article to conduct a General Electricity Business Designated Electricity Utility Electricity Utility designated by an Ordinance of the Minister of International Trade and Industry General Electricity Business Company Company for General Electricity Utilities Electric Facilities Machines, apparatuses, dams, waterways, reservoirs, electric lines, and other facilities installed for the purpose of generating, transforming, transmitting, distributing or using electricity (excluding, however, those installed in ships, vehicles or aircrafts, and those specified by a Cabinet Order) Electric Facilities for General Use Electric Facilities for receiving electricity from another person at a voltage lower than that specified by an Ordinance of the Ministry of Economy, Trade and Industry and using the electricity thus received at the same premises where it has been received (including Small Capacity Generation Facilities installed in the same premises and electrically connected with such Electric Facilities), which are electrically connected with Electric Facilities installed outside the premises only via the electric lines used for receiving electricity Electric Facilities for Private Use Electric Facilities other than Electric Facilities used for an Electricity Business and Electric Facilities for General Use

26 A Semantic Network of Inclusive relations Electricity Business Electricity Utility Wholesale Electricity Business Wholesale Electricity Utility General Electricity Business General Electricity Utility Designated Electricity Utility General Electricity Business Company Electric Facilities Electric Facilities for General Use Electric Facilities for Private Use # of nodes# of edges 38,97426,969

27 Conclusion and Future Work Legal terms and their explanations over 14,000 terms with high precision low recall rate for the process of parenthesis applicable for any language Toward legal term ontology inclusive relation among explanations systematic translation Future works anaphora resolution

28 Thank you!!

29 Legal Terms Referring to the Term “Gas Business” Legal TermThe title of Act ガス事業 Gas Business Gas Business Act (Act No.51 of 1954) ガス工作物 Gas Facilities Gas Business Act (Act No.51 of 1954) 料金 (gas) rate Local Tax Act (Act No.226 of 1950 特定ガス消費機器 Specified Gas Appliance Act concerning Supervising Installation Work of Specified Gas Appliance (Act No.33 of 1979) 公益事業者 public benefit service operator Special Measures Act on Preparation, etc. for Common-Use Tunnel (Act No.81 of 1963) 地方公営企業 local public enterprise Act on Labor Relations of Local Public Enterprises (Act No.289 of 1952) 事業者 business operator Enterprise Rationalization of Promotion Act (Act No.5 of 1952)

30 Patterns of Definitions -- Insert Statements in Parenthesis Defined termExplanatory sentence (a)in parenthesisbefore parenthesis A Gas Utility Service Provider or a Wholesale Gas Business Supplier (these persons shall hereinafter be referred to as a “Gas Utility, etc.”) may,... (b)before parenthesisin parenthesis In the prisoner of war camp, chaplains, etc. (i.e. chaplains, and prisoners of war who are permitted to engage in works listed in item (iv) of Article 64 pursuant to the provision of Article 69. The same shall apply in paragraph (3) of Article 84) may...

31 Patterns of Definitions An independent provision An insert statement in parenthesis

32 Patterns of Definitions An independent provision An insert statement in parenthesis ガス事業法(昭和二十九年法律第五十一号) 第二条 この法律において「一般ガス事業」とは、一般の需要に応じ導管 によりガスを供給する事業をいう。 Gas Business Act (Act No.51 of 1954) Article 2 The term “General Gas Utility Business” as used in this Act shall mean the business of supplying gas via pipelines to meet general demand.

33 Patterns of Definitions An independent provision An insert statement in parenthesis ガス事業法(昭和二十九年法律第五十一号) 第四十二条 ガス事業者又は卸供給事業者(以下「ガス事業者等」とい う。)は、その事業のように供するため、... Gas Business Act (Act No.51 of 1954) Article 42 A Gas Utility Service Provider or a Wholesale Gas Business Supplier (these persons shall hereinafter be referred to as a “Gas Utility, etc.”) may, when it is necessary to install pipelines on or under a road, bridge, ditch, river, embankment or other public land in order to use such pipelines for the businesses, use them with permission from the administrator thereof to the extent that such use does not impair their usability.

34 a) Independent Sentence for Definition ガス事業法(昭和二十九年法律第五十一号) 第二条 この法律において「一般ガス事業」とは、一般の需要に応じ導管 によりガスを供給する事業をいう。 Gas Business Act (Act No.51 of 1954) Article 2 The term “General Gas Utility Business” as used in this Act shall mean the business of supplying gas via pipelines to meet general demand.

35 a) Independent Sentence for Definition ガス事業法(昭和二十九年法律第五十一号) 第四十二条 ガス事業者又は卸供給事業者(以下「ガス事業者等」とい う。)は、その事業のように供するため、道路、橋、みぞ、河川、堤防 その他公共の用に供せられる土地の地上又は地中に導管を設置する必要 があるときは、その効用を妨げない限度において、その管理者の許可を 受けて、これを使用することができる。 Gas Business Act (Act No.51 of 1954) Article 42 A Gas Utility Service Provider or a Wholesale Gas Business Supplier (these persons shall hereinafter be referred to as a “Gas Utility, etc.”) may, when it is necessary to install pipelines on or under a road, bridge, ditch, river, embankment or other public land in order to use such pipelines for the businesses, use them with permission from the administrator thereof to the extent that such use does not impair their usability.

36 a) Independent Sentence for Definition 武力攻撃事態における捕虜等の取り扱いに関する法律(平成十六年法律 第百十七号) 第四十二条 宗教要員等(宗教要員及び第六十九条の規定により第六十四 条第四号に掲げる業務に従事することを許された捕虜をいう。第八十四 条第三項において同じ。)は、捕虜収容所内に置いて,被収容者の行う 第四十条に規定する宗教上の行為を補助し,又は前条第一項に規定する 宗教上の儀式を行うことができる。 Act on Treatment of Prisoners of War and Other Detainees in Armed Attack Situations (Act No.117 of 2004) Article 42 In the prisoner of war camp, chaplains, etc. (i.e. chaplains, and prisoners of war who are permitted to engage in works listed in item (iv) of Article 64 pursuant to the provision of Article 69. The same shall apply in paragraph (3) of Article 84) may assist the detainees in performing religious acts prescribed in Article 40 and may perform the religious ceremonies prescribed in paragraph (1) of the preceding Article.

37 a) Independent Sentence for Definition 武力攻撃事態における捕虜等の取り扱いに関する法律(平成十六年法律 第百十七号) 第百八条 2 審査会は、資格認定審査請求をしたもの(以下「資格認定 審査請求人」という。)が前項の期間内に補正をしないときは、裁決を もって、資格認定審査請求を却下することができる。ただし、その不適 法が軽微なものであるときは、この限りでない。 Act on Treatment of Prisoners of War and Other Detainees in Armed Attack Situations (Act No.117 of 2004) Article 108 (2) In the case that a person who has appealed for a review on the recognition of internment status (hereinafter referred to as “the applicant of the appeal for review on the recognition of internment status”) fails to correct the defect within the period set forth in the preceding paragraph, the Review Board may dismiss the appeal for review on the recognition of internment status by determination; provided, however, that this shall not apply when such defect is minor.


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