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Lessons from the South WERRC School of Social Justice University College Dublin.

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Presentation on theme: "Lessons from the South WERRC School of Social Justice University College Dublin."— Presentation transcript:

1 Lessons from the South WERRC School of Social Justice University College Dublin.

2 Focus of Presentation Analysis of women’s position in non- traditional occupations and education. Outline of ‘best practice’ initiatives which seek to address the gender imbalance in non-traditional occupations. Focus on key learning and recommendations.

3 Analysis of Women’s Position in Non-traditional Occupations and Education.

4 Women’s Location on Labour Market Women’s share of employment increased dramatically to 42 per cent in 2005 Remain concentrated in certain occuaptions and sectors and at lower ranks

5 Broad Occupational GroupSep-Nov 05 (%) MaleFemale Managers and Administrators7030 Professional5149 Associate Professional and Technical4258 Clerical and Secretarial2476 Craft and related964 Personal and Protective Service3664 Sales3961 Plant and Machine Operatives8416 Other6337

6 Factors Shaping Segregation at Level of the Workplace Organisational culture Exclusion of women from male networks Lack of transparency in promotions process Less training, information and discretion Higher levels of stress Balancing work and family life and poor adherence to family friendly policies.

7 The Effect of Segregation Reflects gender inequality through: –The gender pay gap –Concentration of women in lower levels of occupations. Indecon (2002) analysis of the Retail Sector: “35% of males compared to 59% of females were found to earn less than €18,000 p.a. 'a substantially lower proportion of females are in managerial/ administrative positions'.” IT Sector Male dominated, women’s hourly earnings 11-28% less.

8 Gender Patterns in Subject Choice (Leaving Certificate 2000/01) SubjectMales (%)Females (%) Biology29.856.9 Home Economics9.156.8 Physics25.47.9 Chemistry11.612.3 Construction Studies33.52.3 Technical Drawing24.01.7 Engineering19.61.2 Agricultural Science9.22.3

9 Gender Patterns in Subject Choice at School Level Girls make subject choice early (12-15 yrs) Type of school (Single-sex or mixed) Level of provision, related to school characteristics Gender stereotyping of subjects Choice process in schools Provision of taster programmes. Persisting in new programmes (e.g. LCA)

10 Entry into SET at Third Level Discipline% Male % Female Engineering75.7%24.3% Construction76.9%23.1% Computing77.1%22.9% Science44.2%55.8% Total Technology62.2%37.8% Total40.6%59.4%

11 Entry into SET at Third Level Clear gender differences in entry into disciplines at third level Males majority of level 7/6 acceptors (55%) 81% male uptake of technology courses. Females majority of level 8 acceptors (59%) 62% male uptake of technology courses

12 ‘Best Practice’ Initiatives To Bring Women Into Non- traditional Occupations: Key Learning and Recommendations

13 Dept of Education and Science Initiatives for Schools Introducing science as subject at primary level. Science, Technology and Gender at primary level with gender sensitive materials Focus in the Chief Inspector’s Report on Second level schools Establishment of the Science Engineering and Technology (SET) Committee to advise on girls up-take of maths, science and technology subjects.

14 Science Foundation Ireland Small-scale Initiative to address the under- representation of women in SET comprising of three strands: 1. one at school leavers 2. one targeted at Institutions, 3. one at women working in SET within academic settings.

15 SFI School Leaver Initiative Scholarship 4 year degree course Stipend Equipment Mentoring Internships 10 per year from 2006.

16 SFI Institute Development Awards (3) Comprised both research and intiatives. Key Learning: Absence of gender balance Lack of role models/mentors Organisational culture Critical point in emergence of inequalities is transition from PhD completion into independent career.

17 SFI Institute Development Awards (3) Recommendations: Mentoring programme for postgraduate students Careers Advice Childcare supports Family-friendly policies Monitoring workloads Establishing a network of women in SET Monitoring gender balance indicators in the University.

18 SFI Career Advancement Awards Small-scale intiative to address low numbers of women applying for general competitive SFI research awards. State periods of eligible leave without fear of affecting chance of success. Much higher rate of applications, all women 10 awards in 2006

19 Outcomes of SFI Initiatives Data on women in SET faculties Made contact/created network of new group of women researchers Increased awareness and demand among women

20 Women In Technology and Science (WITS) WITS Forum 2003 Predominantly male culture in SET Different publication rates for men and women. Difficulty returning after career break Lack of appropriate role models and mentors Women’s low participation in SET decision and policy-making. Need for gender dissaggregated statistics. The need to mainstream gender issues in science decision and policymaking.

21 WITS WITS 2003 Forum Recommendations: Return to work fellowships. Professional updating courses. Gender-proofing publication evaluation criteria. Role model and mentoring schemes. Target of 40% women on State boards. Dedicated ‘Women in SET’ unit at the Department of Enterprise, Trade and Employment.

22 WITS On-going WITS Initiatives: Role Model Days WITS Talent Bank Diploma Course Women into Management in Food Industry

23 Apprenticeships Women increasingly invisible in apprenticeships Electrician, Painter and Decorator, Motor Mechanic and Cabinet Maker Recommendations FAS bursary to support recruitment Introductory training for women Promotional campaigns Sector/Region based initiative Extend into female occupations e.g. Hairdressing

24 EWM Submission to the Forum on the Workplace of the Future Tackle vertical segregation at workplace level: Address indirect discrimination in recruitment and promotion systems Pro-actively develop women for management Incorporate greater accountability into organisational practice Awareness raising programmes to show how equal opportunities benefit all employees, and the organisation more generally

25 EWM Submission to the Forum on the Workplace of the Future Tackle vertical segregation at Policy level: Actions on work life balance/childcare Promote ‘good practice’ programmes and policies implemented by organisations Recognise and incentivise good equality practice Support returners programmes Support women’s business networking

26 EWM Submission to the Forum on the Workplace of the Future Tackle occupational segregation at workplace: Incorporate equal opportunities and work life balance policies. Provide sector specific (e.g. SET) returners’ programmes to reduce downward mobility

27 EWM Submission to the Forum on the Workplace of the Future Tackle occupational segregation at policy level: ‘Centre of expertise’ to tackle segregation in specific sectors Initiate outreach and scholarship programmes for women taking degrees in non-traditional areas Provide incentives to support reintegration to quality employment e.g. employment grants

28 FOCUS ON TRADE UNIONS LIFT: women in trade unions Address under-representation of women in TU: research, leadership training and training resources, equality auditing and the development of a women’s network.

29 CONCLUSION Segregation results in inequality. Addressing segregation must happen at all levels There is’Good Practice’ examples but limited in scope and impact. Need more systematic support, evaluation and mainstreaming. The challenge is addressed to many levels and partners throughout society.

30 Lessons from the South WERRC School of Social Justice University College Dublin.

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