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Learning Outcomes: Insights from Social Cognitive Theory Tsaihsin Chu National Dong Hwa University Bob, F.Y. Kuo National Sun Yat Sen University.

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Presentation on theme: "Learning Outcomes: Insights from Social Cognitive Theory Tsaihsin Chu National Dong Hwa University Bob, F.Y. Kuo National Sun Yat Sen University."— Presentation transcript:

1 Learning Outcomes: Insights from Social Cognitive Theory Tsaihsin Chu National Dong Hwa University Bob, F.Y. Kuo National Sun Yat Sen University

2 Introduction  Does an e-learning implementation bring about the desired learning outcome?  It is ambiguous while it lacks of clarifying learning outcome construct.  Previous research defines the construct as  organizational improvement (e.g. cost saving and teaching efficiency)  learners’ satisfaction, motivation, and attitude toward the acceptance of technology  learning effectiveness  Social cognitive theory distinguishes learning outcome from learning performance (Bandura, 1997)

3 Social cognitive theory (SCT)  In given situations (E), people anticipate outcomes of their behavior (B) based on how well they believe they will be able to form (P) (see Fig 1) (Bandura, 1997).  People alter their behaviors, or select and create environmental supports in order to bring about the desired outcome. P BE Fig 1 Social cognitive theory. B represents behavior; P the internal personal factors in the form of cognitive, affective, and biological events; and E the external environment.

4  SCT distinguishes three major forms of outcome (Bandura, 1986). :  physical effects  sensory experiences and physical pleasures,  pain and physical discomfort.  social effects  social reactions of others as expressions of interest, approval, social recognition, monetary compensation and conferral of status and power;  on the negative side, they include disinterest, disapproval, social rejection, censure, deprivation of privileges, and imposed penalties.  self-evaluative reactions  self-satisfaction, a sense of pride, self-worth,  self-dissatisfaction, self-devaluation and self-censure.

5 Research design  Site Selection: Sony Electronic (Singapore)  theoretical sampling  Data gathering  Data analysis  analytical framework depicted in Figure 1 to guide data analysis

6 Data gathering IntervieweePeriod 1 (March to July 2001) Period 2 (September/ October 2001) Period 3 (November 2002 to June 2003) Total Implementer3 (technical consultants) and 4 implementers -- 7 Instructor83 (6 times each on average) --11 Learners14 (4 from Taiwan, 1 from Malaysia, 1 from Hong Kong, 1 from South Africa, 1 from Vietnam, 1 from the Philippines, 1 from New Zealand, 1 from Australia) 7 (via a focus group) 1132 Managers4-- 4 Total

7 Research Finding  External environment  IT features and instruction on TrainNet  Learner’s behavior  don’t want to invest advanced IT facilities  active attending but passive learning => the online practice didn’t fully match their desired outcome

8 Expected outcome  Physical outcome  reducing training cost  receiving on-demand training  Social outcome  maintaining social contact with others  being a part of community  Self-evaluation  increasing sense of pride through attending online training  coping decreased self-dissatisfaction and self- devaluation

9 Adaptation Behavior  Learners seems to create more effective environment to bring about the desired outcome  learning by group  sharing knowledge with colleagues  The consequence  Getting more comprehensive cognition  becoming a member of the community of practice  Increasing self-evaluation

10 Implications  to academy  to distinguish learning outcome from performance  to clarify the learning outcome construct  to practice  to choose an appropriate measurement on learning behavior or learning  to enable to create an effective environment to bring about the desired outcome


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