Presentation on theme: "Learning Outcomes: Insights from Social Cognitive Theory Tsaihsin Chu National Dong Hwa University Bob, F.Y. Kuo National Sun Yat Sen University."— Presentation transcript:
Learning Outcomes: Insights from Social Cognitive Theory Tsaihsin Chu National Dong Hwa University Bob, F.Y. Kuo National Sun Yat Sen University
Introduction Does an e-learning implementation bring about the desired learning outcome? It is ambiguous while it lacks of clarifying learning outcome construct. Previous research defines the construct as organizational improvement (e.g. cost saving and teaching efficiency) learners’ satisfaction, motivation, and attitude toward the acceptance of technology learning effectiveness Social cognitive theory distinguishes learning outcome from learning performance (Bandura, 1997)
Social cognitive theory (SCT) In given situations (E), people anticipate outcomes of their behavior (B) based on how well they believe they will be able to form (P) (see Fig 1) (Bandura, 1997). People alter their behaviors, or select and create environmental supports in order to bring about the desired outcome. P BE Fig 1 Social cognitive theory. B represents behavior; P the internal personal factors in the form of cognitive, affective, and biological events; and E the external environment.
SCT distinguishes three major forms of outcome (Bandura, 1986). : physical effects sensory experiences and physical pleasures, pain and physical discomfort. social effects social reactions of others as expressions of interest, approval, social recognition, monetary compensation and conferral of status and power; on the negative side, they include disinterest, disapproval, social rejection, censure, deprivation of privileges, and imposed penalties. self-evaluative reactions self-satisfaction, a sense of pride, self-worth, self-dissatisfaction, self-devaluation and self-censure.
Research design Site Selection: Sony Electronic (Singapore) theoretical sampling Data gathering Data analysis analytical framework depicted in Figure 1 to guide data analysis
Data gathering IntervieweePeriod 1 (March to July 2001) Period 2 (September/ October 2001) Period 3 (November 2002 to June 2003) Total Implementer3 (technical consultants) and 4 implementers -- 7 Instructor83 (6 times each on average) --11 Learners14 (4 from Taiwan, 1 from Malaysia, 1 from Hong Kong, 1 from South Africa, 1 from Vietnam, 1 from the Philippines, 1 from New Zealand, 1 from Australia) 7 (via a focus group) 1132 Managers4-- 4 Total
Research Finding External environment IT features and instruction on TrainNet Learner’s behavior don’t want to invest advanced IT facilities active attending but passive learning => the online practice didn’t fully match their desired outcome
Expected outcome Physical outcome reducing training cost receiving on-demand training Social outcome maintaining social contact with others being a part of community Self-evaluation increasing sense of pride through attending online training coping decreased self-dissatisfaction and self- devaluation
Adaptation Behavior Learners seems to create more effective environment to bring about the desired outcome learning by group sharing knowledge with colleagues The consequence Getting more comprehensive cognition becoming a member of the community of practice Increasing self-evaluation
Implications to academy to distinguish learning outcome from performance to clarify the learning outcome construct to practice to choose an appropriate measurement on learning behavior or learning to enable to create an effective environment to bring about the desired outcome