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Discretely continuous: How semantic maps affirm the intuitions and assertions of Cognitive Linguistics Steven Clancy Slavic Languages and Literatures University.

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Presentation on theme: "Discretely continuous: How semantic maps affirm the intuitions and assertions of Cognitive Linguistics Steven Clancy Slavic Languages and Literatures University."— Presentation transcript:

1 Discretely continuous: How semantic maps affirm the intuitions and assertions of Cognitive Linguistics Steven Clancy Slavic Languages and Literatures University of Chicago SCLC-2007 University of Chicago October 12-14, 2008

2 For updated information, see http://home.uchicago.edu/~sclancy Criticisms (Janda forthcoming) different parameters apple is contained bowl apple is loose-fit bowl apple is concave valley facing bowl apple is belly bowl different means (evidentiality, verb vs. satellite framed languages) different metaphors, source domains a response: much depends on how a researcher uses, structures, and interprets the model

3 For updated information, see http://home.uchicago.edu/~sclancy Conceptual Space lines show connected concepts geometric arrangement is not specific distance between concepts is not significant

4 For updated information, see http://home.uchicago.edu/~sclancy Semantic Map for Russian

5 For updated information, see http://home.uchicago.edu/~sclancy MDS MDS = multi-dimensional scaling mathematically well-defined method for analyzing data organizes patterns and connections in the data Multidimensional, i.e., can be a 1, 2, 3... dimensional analysis Example: table of driving distances between cities; locations of cities are not specified, only raw distances between the cities

6 For updated information, see http://home.uchicago.edu/~sclancy MDS with Circle of Fifths http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Circle_of_fifths

7 For updated information, see http://home.uchicago.edu/~sclancy MDS MDS = multidimensional scaling cutting lines (separate the yea’s from the nay’s) polytopes (regions defined by the cutting lines) Croft and Poole (forthcoming) applies MDS techniques to data sets from previous linguistic analyses (Haspelmath’s semantic map analysis of indefinite pronouns, Levinson et al.’s analysis of spatial adpositions, and Dahl’s (1985) analysis of tense and aspect replicates the conceptual space of Haspelmath what was possible for a small data set (Haspelmath’s 9 functions can now be extended to a much larger set of functions that would otherwise be impossible to map

8 For updated information, see http://home.uchicago.edu/~sclancy Indefinite Pronouns in MDS connections are drawn in MDS-OC analysis produces specific geometric arrangement semantic distance between points is significant increased data/diversity provides greater specificity what do the XY dimensions mean?

9 For updated information, see http://home.uchicago.edu/~sclancy Indefinite Pronouns in MDS from Croft and Poole (forthcoming)

10 For updated information, see http://home.uchicago.edu/~sclancy Indefinite Pronouns in MDS from Croft and Poole (forthcoming)

11 For updated information, see http://home.uchicago.edu/~sclancy Semantic Map for Russian

12 For updated information, see http://home.uchicago.edu/~sclancy MDS: Optimal Classification Poole’s “Optimal Classification” method of MDS “legislators” are the functions; can be identified for any language (relatively finite) language data are the “roll calls” (extendable) a legislator votes for or against a certain issue a function either participates or does not participate in a construction with a case and/or a preposition binary (+/- or 1/0) situation (coded as 1/6 by Poole) what’s multi-dimensional in MDS? some linguistic problems are 1-D, most are 2-D, some are likely 3-D; strive for simplest dimensionality that captures the data to be analyzed

13 For updated information, see http://home.uchicago.edu/~sclancy Database in progress...... 246 for Cz P, R... ~950-1200-1500?

14 For updated information, see http://home.uchicago.edu/~sclancy

15

16 Semantic Space of Slavic Case

17 For updated information, see http://home.uchicago.edu/~sclancy Semantic Space of Slavic Case

18 For updated information, see http://home.uchicago.edu/~sclancy flat vs. textured

19 For updated information, see http://home.uchicago.edu/~sclancy Discreteness vs. Continuity future applications of MDS-OC may allow for views of semantic space that parallel zooming in on a geographical map, e.g., Google Maps Chicago University of Chicago Slavic Department such applications may allow us to better approach questions of discreteness and continuity in language DIRECTIONALITY > DESTINATION > SPECIFIC DESTINATION Russ v + ACC Russ na + ACC Russ k + DAT

20 For updated information, see http://home.uchicago.edu/~sclancy Coding the functions (see handout for languages and categories) DESTINATION—LOCATION—SOURCE R na + ACCR na + LOC ‘to’‘on, at’ TOO MUCH (?)Russ ACCRuss LOC R naR na R na+ACCR na+LOC TOO LITTLE (?) R na+ACCR na+LOC JUST RIGHT (?) Russ ACCRuss LOC R naR na

21 For updated information, see http://home.uchicago.edu/~sclancy Pan-Slavic destination-location-source RUSS-CZEC-PLSH-SERB-CROA-SLVN

22 For updated information, see http://home.uchicago.edu/~sclancy Pan-Slavic destination-location-source Russian Russ GEN Russ DAT

23 For updated information, see http://home.uchicago.edu/~sclancy Pan-Slavic destination-location-source Czech Czech GEN Czech DAT

24 For updated information, see http://home.uchicago.edu/~sclancy PanSlavic destination-location-source Polish Polish GEN

25 For updated information, see http://home.uchicago.edu/~sclancy Slavic Case Systems The Case Book for Russian (2002) The Case Book for Czech (2006) The Case Book for Polish (forthcoming 2008) all books co-authored with Laura Janda (UNC-Chapel Hill)

26 For updated information, see http://home.uchicago.edu/~sclancy The Russian Genitive Genitive: a Whole ‘of’, possession, color prepositions and prepositional phrases expressing ‘of’ numerals, quantifier words ∑ÀÉÃÿÀœ skol'ko ‘how many’ ŒÅ∑ÀœÃÿÀœ neskol'ko ‘some’ ∑∏ÉÃÿÀœ stol'ko ‘so many’ Ռɫœ mnogo ‘many/much’ Œ≈Ռɫœ nemnogo ‘not many/much’ ÕÄÃœ malo ‘few/little’ ∫ÉÃÿ ш ≈ bol'¨e ‘more’ ÕÅŒÿ ш ≈ men'¨e ‘fewer/less’ Œ≈ÕÄÃœ nemalo ‘not a few’ partitive genitive, ‘some’

27 For updated information, see http://home.uchicago.edu/~sclancy The Russian Genitive Genitive: a Source …⁄ iz 'from' …⁄-⁄¡ iz-za 'from beyond, because of' …⁄-¥œƒ iz-pod 'from beneath' ∑ s 'from' œ∏ ot 'from' some verbs ∫œÖ∏ÿ∑µ ‘fear, be afraid’ …⁄∫≈«Ä∏ÿ/…⁄∫≈÷Ä∏ÿ ‘avoid’ ¥π«Ä∏ÿ∑µ/…∑¥π«Ä∏ÿ∑µ ‘be frightened’ ∑∏≈∑ŒÖ∏ÿ∑µ/¥œ∑∏≈∑ŒÖ∏ÿ∑µ ‘be shy’ ∑∏ŸƒÇ∏ÿ∑µ/¥œ∑∏ŸƒÇ∏ÿ∑µ ‘be ashamed’

28 For updated information, see http://home.uchicago.edu/~sclancy The Russian Genitive Genitive: a Reference dates ¥≈∂◊œ«œ œ∏Àµ∫∂µ pervogo oktjabrja 'on the first of October' some prepositions ∫≈⁄‘without’ ◊Œ≈‘outside of’ ◊œÀ∂Ñ« ‘around’ À∂ÉÕ≈ ‘except, besides, aside from’ ÕÇÕœ‘by, past’ ÉÀœÃœ ‘around; approximately’ ¥É∑Ã≈‘after’ π u‘near, at, by’ π X-GEN + (≈∑∏ÿ est’) + Y-NOM [by X is Y] ‘X has Y’ ‘at so-and so’s place’ lack, genitive of negation Œ≈ ∫ŸÃœ/Œ≈∏/Œ≈ ∫πƒ≈∏ ne bylo/net/ne budet ‘there was not/is not/will not be’ some other expressions Ã… ш Ä∏ÿ/Ã… ш Ç∏ÿ ‘deprive’ Ã… ш Ä∏ÿ∑µ/Ã… ш Ç∏ÿ∑µ ‘be deprived’ Ã… ш £ŒŒŸ™ ‘deprived’ Œ≈ƒœ∑∏Ä∏œÀ ‘lack’ comparison ∑∏¡∂ ш ≈ Õ≈Œµ star¨e menja ‘older than me’

29 For updated information, see http://home.uchicago.edu/~sclancy The Russian Genitive Genitive: a Goal some prepositions ƒœ do 'to, as far as; before, until' ƒÃµ dlja 'for' ∂¡ƒ… radi 'for the sake of' ¥∂œ∏…◊ protiv 'against' ÷¡Ãÿ/÷¡ÃÀœ ≠al'/≠alko 'too bad, pity' some verbs ƒ≈∂÷Ä∏ÿ∑µ ‘hold to’ ƒœ∑∏…«Ä∏ÿ/ƒœ∑∏Ç«Œπ∏ÿ/ƒœ∑∏ Ç ч ÿ ‘attain, reach’ ÷≈ÃÄ∏ÿ/¥œ÷≈ÃÄ∏ÿ ‘desire, wish’ ⁄¡∑ÃÑ÷…◊¡∏ÿ/⁄¡∑Ãπ÷Ç∏ÿ ‘deserve, merit’ À¡∑Ä∏ÿ∑µ/Àœ∑ŒÑ∏ÿ∑µ ‘touch; concern’

30 For updated information, see http://home.uchicago.edu/~sclancy continuity in the networks

31 For updated information, see http://home.uchicago.edu/~sclancy A revision of the networks?

32 For updated information, see http://home.uchicago.edu/~sclancy BE in Slavic

33 For updated information, see http://home.uchicago.edu/~sclancy Rude’s Circle

34 For updated information, see http://home.uchicago.edu/~sclancy Rude’s Circle, Chvany’s Revision

35 For updated information, see http://home.uchicago.edu/~sclancy Rude’s Circle, MDS-OC

36 For updated information, see http://home.uchicago.edu/~sclancy BEING-BECOMING-UNBECOMING

37 For updated information, see http://home.uchicago.edu/~sclancy BE in Slavic (MDS-OC)

38 For updated information, see http://home.uchicago.edu/~sclancy BEING-BECOMING-UNBECOMING CATEGORYBECOMINGBEINGUNBECOMING existence∫Ÿ∏ÿ, ≈∑∏ÿ, Ø possession…Õ≈∏ÿ∑µ creation∏◊œ∂…∏ÿ∑µ∑π›≈∑∏◊œ◊¡∏ÿ life visibility, presenceµ◊õ∏ÿ∑µ ¥∂≈ƒ∑∏¡◊õ∏ÿ ∑œ∫œ™ accessibilityŒ¡»œƒ…∏ÿ∑µ motion¥∂…∑π∏∑∏◊œ◊¡∏ÿ process position∑∏œµ∏ÿ, ∑…ƒ≈∏ÿ, Ã≈÷¡∏ÿ manipulation

39 For updated information, see http://home.uchicago.edu/~sclancy Caveats and Questions what will MDS do, what can it do? how to structure the data to take advantage of MDS what exactly are we modeling? is case sufficiently coherent as a system for an MDS analysis? across Slavic? across languages with morphological case? across languages in general? how do we compare case systems with systems using word order? using prepositions? expanding the database is necessary, but time intensive catching errors in the database how do we zoom in/out on regions: generalized functions/meanings vs. greater detail

40 For updated information, see http://home.uchicago.edu/~sclancy Hopes that MDS-OC will... provide a rigorous, mathematical model that affirms the speculative, introspective models, diagrams, and networks long in use by cognitive linguists –e.g., will the case meanings of the Janda & Clancy Case Book series emerge in the conceptual space provide a means of tackling large-scale problems that would be insoluble by introspective or empirical means reveal a conceptual space for the domain of case (and adposition) functions across languages allow for the extension of conceptual spaces to other linguistic domains (verbal semantics, aspect, modality) given proper structuring of the data reveal a coherent, universal conceptual space that is carved up in a variety of ways across languages provide motivations for diachronic change in measurable semantic proximity in the conceptual space provide a model for tracking and predicting diachronic change as well as the effects of language contact (e.g. Tenser (forthcoming) using semantic maps to track language contact effects in Romani dialects)

41 For updated information, see http://home.uchicago.edu/~sclancy For further information... contact Steven Clancy sclancy@uchicago.edu sclancy@uchicago.edu visit my website http://home.uchicago.edu/~sclancy http://home.uchicago.edu/~sclancy contribute to the multilingual database to be established at the University of Chicago Center for the Study of Languages http://languages.uchicago.edu/projects http://languages.uchicago.edu/projects

42 For updated information, see http://home.uchicago.edu/~sclancy Additional Materials the following slides contain supplementary materials not presented in the full talk at the SCLC-2007conference.

43 For updated information, see http://home.uchicago.edu/~sclancy directionalityscopeshaping status

44 For updated information, see http://home.uchicago.edu/~sclancy directionality marginality quantification

45 For updated information, see http://home.uchicago.edu/~sclancy NOM??? LOC DAT ACC INST GEN LOC2 GEN2

46 For updated information, see http://home.uchicago.edu/~sclancy Haspelmath’s Semantic Map of Indefinite Pronouns (1)Specific known: a specific referent whose identity is known to the speaker (but not the hearer) Masha met with someone near the university. [speaker knows who] (46) (2)Specific unknown: a specific referent whose identity is unknown to both hearer and speaker Masha met with somebody near the university. [speaker has forgotten who] (46) (3) Irrealis non-specific: a referent (a manner in this example) which does not have a specific identity and exists only in a nonreal context Visit me sometime. (42) Haspelmath (1997) in Croft and Poole

47 For updated information, see http://home.uchicago.edu/~sclancy Haspelmath’s Semantic Map of Indefinite Pronouns (4) Question: an unspecified referent in the scope of interrogation (especially polar interrogatives) Can you hear anything? (36) (5) Conditional: an unspecified referent in the protasis in a conditional construction If you hear anything, tell me. (36) (6) Indirect negation: an unspecified referent which is in a clause embedded in a negated clause I don’t think that anybody has seen it. (33) Haspelmath (1997) in Croft and Poole

48 For updated information, see http://home.uchicago.edu/~sclancy Haspelmath’s Semantic Map of Indefinite Pronouns (7) Comparative: an unspecified referent occurring in the standard of comparison in a comparative construction The boy runs as fast as anyone in his class. (35) (8) Free choice: an unspecified referent in certain contexts whose identity can be freely chosen without affecting the truth value of the utterance After the fall of the Wall, East Germans were free to travel anywhere. (48) (9) Direct negation: an unspecified referent which is in the scope of negation in the same clause I noticed nothing/I didn’t see anything. (31-32) Haspelmath (1997) in Croft and Poole

49 For updated information, see http://home.uchicago.edu/~sclancy

50 MDS with driving distances from Croft and Poole (forthcoming)

51 For updated information, see http://home.uchicago.edu/~sclancy MDS with driving distances from Croft and Poole (forthcoming)

52 For updated information, see http://home.uchicago.edu/~sclancy MDS with politics from Keith Poole’s voteview.com

53 For updated information, see http://home.uchicago.edu/~sclancy

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