NATURAL AND TECH. HAZARDS THAT HAVE CAUSED DISASTERS IN INDIA FLOODS SEVERE WINDSTORMS EARTHQUAKES POWER BLACKOUTS ENVIRONMENTAL CHANGE GLOBAL CLIMATE CHANGE HIGH BENEFIT/COST FROM BECOMING DISASTER RESILIENT GOAL: PROTECT PEOPLE AND COMMUNITIES
Natural Phenomena That Cause Disasters Planet Earth’s heat flow causes movement of lithospheric plates, which causes faulting, which causes EARTHQUAKES
EARTHQUAKE HAZARD MODEL EARTHQUAKE HAZARD MODEL SEISMICITY TECTONIC SETTING & FAULTS TECTONIC SETTING & FAULTS
CAUSE OF SEISMICITY The interaction of the Indo- Australia and Eurasia plates is the main causative factor for the seismicity of India.
UNREINFORCED MASONRY, BRICK OR STONE REINFORCED CONCRETE WITH UNREINFORCED WALLS INTENSITY REINFORCED CONCRETE WITH REINFORCEDWALLS STEEL FRAME ALL METAL & WOOD FRAME VVIVIIVIIIIX 3530 25 20 15 10 5 0 MEAN DAMAGE RATIO, % OF REPLACEMENT VALUE CONSTRUCTION MATERIALS HAVE DIFFERENT VULNERABILITIES TO GROUND SHAKING
An element’s vulnerability (fragility) is the result of a community’s actions or policies that change its resistance to ground shaking
INADEQUATE RESISTANCE TO HORIZONTAL GROUND SHAKING EARTHQUAKES SOIL AMPLIFICATION PERMANENT DISPLACEMENT (SURFACE FAULTING & GROUND FAILURE) IRREGULARITIES IN ELEVATION AND PLAN FIRE FOLLOWING RUPTURE OF UTILITIES LACK OF DETAILING AND CONSTRUCTION MATERIALS INATTENTION TO NON- STRUCTURAL ELEMENTS CAUSES OF DAMAGE “DISASTER LABORATORIES”
A DISASTER CAN HAPPEN WHEN THE POTENTIAL DISASTER AGENTS OF AN EARTHQUAKE INTERACT WITH INDIA’S COMMUNITIES
THE GUJARAT, INDIA EARTHQUAKE DISASTER JANUARY 26, 2001
AN INTRAPLATE EARTHQUAKE 400 KM FROM PLATE BOUNDARY-- “A SURPRISE”
GUJARAT EARTHQUAKE MAGNITUDE 7.7 JUST BEFORE 0900 ON A HOLIDAY (51 st Republic Day) MAGNITUDE 7.7 JUST BEFORE 0900 ON A HOLIDAY (51 st Republic Day) 20,000 DEAD 167,000 INJURED 400,000 HOMES DESTROYED 600,000 HOMELESS 20,000 DEAD 167,000 INJURED 400,000 HOMES DESTROYED 600,000 HOMELESS
STRICKEN URBAN CENTERS BHUJ, (150,000), 20 km from epicenter Devastated BHUJ, (150,000), 20 km from epicenter Devastated AHMEDABAD (5.6 MILLION) 50 multi-story buildings collapsed AHMEDABAD (5.6 MILLION) 50 multi-story buildings collapsed
ESTIMATED LOSS: $5.5 BILLION Over 1 million structures damaged or destroyed.
INTERNATIONAL ASSISTANCE PROVIDED FROM ALL OVER THE WORLD
The impacted area was re- equipped with all the basic facilities along with state-of-the- art upgrades; Bhuj, for examples, now has a better hospital, town and first-aid center
A DISASTER is --- --- the set of failures that overwhelm the capability of a community to respond without external help when three continuums: 1) people, 2) community (i.e., a set of habitats, livelihoods, and social constructs), and 3) complex events (e.g., earthquakes, floods,…) intersect at a point in space and time.
Disasters are caused by s ingle- or multiple-event natural hazards that, (for various reasons), cause extreme levels of mortality, morbidity, homelessness, joblessness, economic losses, or environmental impacts.
THE REASONS ARE... When it does happen, the functions of the community’s buildings and infrastructure can be LOST for long periods.
THE REASONS ARE... The community is UN- PREPARED for what will likely happen, not to mention the low-probability of occurrence— high-probability of adverse consequences event.
THE REASONS ARE... The community has NO DISASTER PLANNING SCENARIO or WARNING SYSTEM in place as a strategic framework for early threat identification and coordinated local, national, regional, and international countermeasures.
THE REASONS ARE... The community LACKS THE CAPACITY TO RESPOND in a timely and effective manner to the full spectrum of expected and unexpected emergency situations.
THE REASONS ARE... The community is INEFFICIENT during recovery and reconstruction because it HAS NOT LEARNED from either the current experience or the cumulative prior experiences.
THE ALTERNATIVE TO AN EARTHQUAKE DISASTER IS EARTHQUAKE DISASTER RESILIENCE