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From Birth to Death: Life-Span Development

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1 From Birth to Death: Life-Span Development
Chapter 4 From Birth to Death: Life-Span Development Table of Contents Exit

2 Life Events Developmental Tasks: These must be mastered for optimal development (e.g., learning to read and adjusting to sexual maturity) Developmental Milestones: Notable events, markers, or turning points in personal development Psychosocial Dilemma: Conflict between personal impulses and the social world Table of Contents Exit

3 Erik Erikson’s Eight Stages of Psychosocial Dilemmas
Stage One: Trust Versus Mistrust (Birth-1): Children are completely dependent on others Trust: Established when babies given adequate warmth, touching, love, and physical care Mistrust: Caused by inadequate or unpredictable care and by cold, indifferent, and rejecting parents Stage Two: Autonomy Versus Shame and Doubt (1-3) Autonomy: Doing things for themselves Overprotective or ridiculing parents may cause children to doubt abilities and feel shameful about their actions Table of Contents Exit

4 Erik Erikson’s Eight Stages of Psychosocial Dilemmas (cont.)
Stage Three: Initiative Versus Guilt (3-5) Initiative: Parents reinforce via giving children freedom to play, use imagination, and ask questions Guilt: May occur if parents criticize, prevent play, or discourage a child’s questions Stage Four: Industry Versus Inferiority (6-12) Industry: Occurs when child is praised for productive activities Inferiority: Occurs if child’s efforts are regarded as messy or inadequate Table of Contents Exit

5 Erik Erikson’s Eight Stages of Psychosocial Dilemmas (cont.)
Stage Five (Adolescence): Identity Versus Role Confusion Identity: For adolescents; problems answering, “Who am I?” Role Confusion: Occurs when adolescents are unsure of where they are going and who they are Stage Six (Young adulthood): Intimacy Versus Isolation Intimacy: Ability to care about others and to share experiences with them Isolation: Feeling alone and uncared for in life Table of Contents Exit

6 Erik Erikson’s Eight Stages of Psychosocial Dilemmas (cont.)
Stage Seven (Middle adulthood): Generativity Versus Stagnation Generativity: Interest in guiding the next generation Stagnation: When one is only concerned with one’s own needs and comforts Stage Eight (Late adulthood): Integrity Versus Despair Integrity: Self-respect; developed when people have lived richly and responsibly Despair: Occurs when previous life events are viewed with regret; experiences heartache and remorse. Table of Contents Exit

7 Normal Childhood Problems
Sleep disturbances Specific fears of the dark, dogs, school, or a particular room or person Most children will be overly timid at times, allowing bullying Temporary periods of dissatisfaction, when nothing pleases the child General negativism Clinging to a parent(s) or caregiver Reversals or regressions to more infantile behavior occur with almost all children (Chess, Thomas, & Birch, 1976) Table of Contents Exit

8 Rivalry and Rebellion Sibling Rivalry: Competition among brothers and sisters Childhood Rebellion: Open defiance of adult authority Table of Contents Exit

9 Serious Childhood Problems
Toilet Training Problems: Average age for completion is 30 months; some children will take up to six months longer Enuresis: Lack of bladder control; bedwetting. May be physical problem. Much more common in males Encopresis: Lack of bowel control; soiling. Not as common as enuresis Table of Contents Exit

10 Serious Childhood Problems: Feeding Disturbances
Overeating: Eating in excess of daily caloric needs; significant problem because of convenience and fast foods Anorexia Nervosa: Self-starvation or sustained loss of appetite that is assumed by some to have psychological origins Pica: Eating or chewing inedible objects or substances such as lead, chalk, paint chips, clay and so on. Note: Eating inedible foods on occasion is not uncommon among young toddlers Table of Contents Exit

11 CNN – Sleep Disorders Table of Contents Exit

12 Fig. 4.1 Dramatic differences in physical size and maturity are found in adolescents of the same age. The girls pictured are all 13, the boys 16. Maturation that occurs earlier or later than average can affect the “search for identity.” (Reprinted with permission of Nelson Prentiss.) Table of Contents Exit

13 Speech Disturbances Delayed Speech: Speech that begins well after the normal age for language development Stuttering: Chronic hesitation or stumbling in speech. Seems to involve speech timing mechanisms in brain; NOT parent’s fault Four times more common in males May be partially inherited Table of Contents Exit

14 Learning Disorders Includes problems with reading, math or writing. Exists when academic achievement is significantly lower than expected for child’s intellectual level and age Dyslexia: Inability to read with understanding. Classic example is reversing letters Affects about 10-15% of all school-age children Table of Contents Exit

15 CNN – Dyslexia Study Table of Contents Exit

16 Attention-Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD)
Behavioral problem characterized by short attention span, rapid speech, impulsivity, and rarely finishing work. Much more common among boys than girls Treatment Methods: Drugs: Ritalin (methylphenidate): Stimulant; seems to lengthen attention span and reduce impulsiveness Behavior Modification: Application of learning principles to change or eliminate maladaptive or abnormal behavior Reward child for being calm and paying attention Table of Contents Exit

17 CNN – Hyperactive Brains
Table of Contents Exit

18 Conduct Disorder Affected children are aggressive and harm others
Engage in vandalism, lying, or stealing Persistently violate rules Usually in trouble at school, at home, and in the community Generally have low self-esteem Outlook for successful treatment is poor; parents need to seek professional help for such children Table of Contents Exit

19 Autism Severe disorder involving mutism (silence), sensory spin-outs (watching a faucet drip for hours), sensory blocking (not responding to an extremely loud noise), tantrums, and unresponsiveness to others, among other symptoms Echolalia: When an autistic child parrots back everything said, like an echo “Rain Man” is a decent example on film Table of Contents Exit

20 Child Abuse Physical or emotional harm caused by violence, mistreatment, or neglect 3.5 to 14 percent of all children are physically abused by parents Abusive parents typically have high level of stress and frustration in their lives About 1/3 of all parents who were abused as children mistreat their own children One method to prevent child abuse is to change attitudes; not a parent’s right to hit or slap their child Table of Contents Exit

21 Adolescence Culturally defined period between childhood and adulthood
Puberty: Hormonal changes promote rapid physical growth and sexual maturity Puberty tends to increase body awareness and concerns about physical appearance Growth Spurt: Accelerated growth rate Table of Contents Exit

22 Adolescence (cont.) Social Markers: Visible or tangible signs that indicate a person’s social status or role, e.g., driver’s license or wedding ring Imaginary Audiences: People adolescents imagine are watching them Peer Group: People who share similar social status Table of Contents Exit

23 CNN – Heroin Addiction Table of Contents Exit

24 Lawrence Kohlberg and Stages of Moral Development
Moral Development: When we acquire values, beliefs, and thinking abilities that guide responsible behavior Three Levels Preconventional: Moral thinking guided by consequences of actions (punishment, reward, exchange of favors) Conventional: Reasoning based on a desire to please others or to follow accepted rules and values Postconventional: Follows self-accepted moral principles Stage theorist, like Freud and Erikson Table of Contents Exit

25 Developmental Challenges for North American Adults (Gould)
Escape From Dominance (Ages 16-18) Leaving the Family (Ages 18-22) Building a Workable Life (Ages 22-28) Crisis of Questions (Ages 29-34) Table of Contents Exit

26 Developmental Challenges for North American Adults (Gould) (cont.)
Crisis of Urgency (Ages 35-43) Attaining Stability (Ages 43-50) Mellowing (Ages 50 and up) Table of Contents Exit

27 Middle Age Issues: Mid-Life Crises?
Menopause: Menstruation ends and a woman is no longer able to bear children. Estrogen levels also drop, sometimes causing mood or appearance changes. Hot flashes: Sudden uncomfortable sensation of heat; symptom of menopause in some women Climacteric: When men experience a significant change in vigor or appearance; may be psychological in origin Andropause: Reduced testosterone levels; can lead to decreased sex drive, fatigue, and obesity Empty Nest Syndrome: A woman may become depressed after her last child leaves home Table of Contents Exit

28 Fig. 4. 8 At what point during life are people most productive
Fig. 4.8 At what point during life are people most productive? On average, when do people make their greatest contributions to fields such as science, literature, philosophy, music, and the visual arts? No matter how achievement is tallied, productivity tends to rise rapidly to a single peak that is followed by a slow decline. The graph you see here is typical of contributions to the field of psychology. Fields such as poetry, pure math, and theoretical physics have earlier peaks, around the early 30s or even the late 20s. Other fields, such as novel writing, history, philosophy, medicine, and scholarship are marked by peaks in the late 40s, 50s, or even 60s. (After Simonton, 1988.) Table of Contents Exit

29 Gerontology and the Study of Aging
Gerontologists study aging and its effects Intellectual Abilities: Fluid Abilities: Abilities requiring speed or rapid learning; based on perceptual and motor abilities; may decrease with age Crystallized Abilities: Learned (accumulated) knowledge and skills; vocabulary and basic facts Table of Contents Exit

30 Gerontology and the Study of Aging (cont.)
Disengagement Theory: Assumes that it is normal and desirable for people to withdraw from society as they age Activity Theory: People who remain active physically, mentally, and socially will adjust better to aging Ageism: Discrimination or prejudice based on age Table of Contents Exit

31 Fig. 4.6 Longer life expectancy will produce an unprecedented increase in the percentage of the population over age 65. The “boom” is expected to start at the turn of the century and peak by about 2030 to 2050 (Taebuer, 1993). Table of Contents Exit

32 Fig. 4.7 Physical aging, which is biologically programmed, progresses steadily from early adulthood onward. Regular exercise, good health practices, and a positive attitude can help minimize the impact of physical aging. Table of Contents Exit

33 Fig. 4.7 Average performance at various ages for verbal, numeric, spatial, and reasoning abilities all fall within the blue area of this graph. Notice that, in general, mental abilities show modest gains from young adulthood to early middle age. After that, they begin a slow decline. Notice, too, that most abilities at age 70 return to about the same levels found at age 25. Only after age 80 do declines become large enough to make a practical difference in mental abilities. One exception is perceptual speed (black line). This fluid ability declines steadily after age 25. (Adapted from Schaie, 1994.) Table of Contents Exit

34 Four Psychological Characteristics of Healthy, Happy Older People (Vailant, 2002)
Optimism, hope, and interest in the future Gratitude and forgiveness; an ability to focus on what is good in life Empathy; an ability to share the feelings of others and see the world through their eyes Connection with others; an ability to reach out, to give and receive social support Table of Contents Exit

35 Fig 4. 4 Negative emotions are more common before age 50 than after
Fig 4.4 Negative emotions are more common before age 50 than after. The frequency of positive feelings tends to increase from midlife on into old age. Table of Contents Exit

36 CNN – Alzheimer’s Babies
Table of Contents Exit

37 Death and Dying; Elizabeth Kubler-Ross
Ross is a thanatologist: One who studies emotional and behavioral reactions to death and dying Ross described five basic reactions to death that occur, not necessarily in the following order or experienced by everyone Table of Contents Exit

38 Five Basic Reactions to Death (Kubler-Ross)
Denial and Isolation: Denying death’s reality and isolating oneself from information confirming that death will occur. “It’s a mistake; the doctors are wrong.” Anger: Asking “why me?” Anger may then be projected onto the living Bargaining: Terminally ill will bargain with God or with themselves. “If I can live longer I’ll be a better person.” Depression: Feelings of futility, exhaustion and deep sadness Acceptance: If death is not sudden, many will accept death calmly. Person is at peace finally with the concept of death Table of Contents Exit

39 Bereavement and Grief Bereavement: Period of adjustment that follows death of loved one Grief: Intense sorrow and distress following death of loved one Shock: Emotional numbness experienced after death of loved one Pangs of Grief: Intense and anguished yearning for one who has died Resolution: Acceptance of loss and need to build a new life Table of Contents Exit

40 CNN – The Grieving Process
Table of Contents Exit

41 Happiness Subjective Well-Being: Feelings of well-being occur when people are satisfied with their lives, have frequent positive emotions, and have relatively few negative emotions Happier people tend to be Married Comfortable with their work Extraverted Religious Generally optimistic and satisfied with their lives Table of Contents Exit

42 Attitudes Toward Death
Hospice: Medical facility or program that provides supportive care for terminally ill; goal is to improve person’s final days Living Will: Written statement that a person does not wish to have his/her life artificially prolonged if terminally ill; a “Do Not Resuscitate” order to doctors Table of Contents Exit

43 Euthanasia Passive: Death allowed to occur but not actively caused
Active: Steps taken, at patient’s request, to deliberately speed death; usually by injecting drugs that painlessly cause death Physician-assisted dying: Doctor provides lethal dose of drug that patients take to end life Table of Contents Exit

44 CNN – Assisted Suicide Table of Contents Exit

45 Cryonics Cryonic Suspension: Freezing body (or head) immediately after death Idea: Keep person frozen until medicine perfects ways to thaw, restore, and revive person Table of Contents Exit

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