Presentation on theme: "Determinants of FDI: Lessons from the African Economies"— Presentation transcript:
1Determinants of FDI: Lessons from the African Economies Journal of Applied Business and Economics, Vol. 9, No. 1, 2009
2FDI in Africa (UNCTAD 2005). Africa accounts for: Just 2 to 3 % of global FDI inflows,Down from a peak of 6 percent in the mid-1970s, andLess than 9 percent of developing-country flow receipts compared to an earlier peak of 28 percent in 1976
3Foreign Direct Investment by region 1999-2003 Volume of FDI that flows into Africa:Only very low as a share of total global FDI flows or even as a share of FDI flows to developing countries,Also the share is on a steadily declining for several decades in the past.Source: UNCTAD (2006)
4Foreign Direct Investment by region 2005-06 In 2006, FDI inflow to Africa rose by 20%, twice the amount recorded in 2004.Following substantial increases in commodity prices, many TNCs significantly expanded their activities in oil, gas, and mining industries (UNCTAD (2007))75% of FDI inflows to Africa go to S.Africa and oil- and mineral-abundant countries.Source: UNCTAD (2007)
5Existing StudiesSome Studies deal with the issues of FDI and their potential benefits for developing countriesin terms of employment opportunities, technology transfers, and growth and development.Several studies on the determinants of FDI in developed countries and developing countries,Developed countries or developing countries cannot be grouped together given their different economic and socio-political conditions.Some studies concentrate on a region, but few on the African region.
6Determinants of FDI – Dunning (1981, 1988) ‘electric theory’ Economic factorsPolicy frameworkBusiness facilitation measuresEconomic factorsPolicy frameworkBusiness facilitation measuresEconomic factorsPolicy frameworkBusiness facilitation measuresEconomic factorsPolicy frameworkBusiness facilitation measuresEconomic factorsPolicy frameworkBusiness facilitation measuresEconomic factorsPolicy frameworkBusiness facilitation measuresDeterminants of FDI3 set of factorsadvantage that the firm has over its rivals in terms of its brand name, patent, or knowledge of technology and marketing1. Firm-specific Advantage2. Location- specific Advantage3. Internalisation Advantagebenefits for the firm in exploiting its competitive advantages & location advantages by investing in foreign affiliates that they control rather than dealing with unrelated firms located abroad
7Research focused on the determinants of FDI identified the following factors as attracting FDI: Comparative labour costs,Level of skills and Expertise,country size,economic opennessnature of exchange rate regimes,return on investment, andpolitical factors.Ease of Doing business
8Benchmarking starting a business in COMESA countries Starting a BusinessRegionEase of Doing Business RankOverall Ranking: Starting a BusinessProcedures to start a Business (Number)Time to start a Business (Days)Cost to start a Business (% Income per Capita)Minimum Capital to Start a Business (% Income per Capita)World1stSingaporeNew Zeland10.42ndCanada50.5SSAMauritius (24 th)Mauritius (7 th)6COMESABurundi1771381143215Comoros15516023188280DRC18115413435Djibouti15317337200514Egypt114417182Eritria17884102396Ethiopia1161181630693Kenya821091240Madagascar14458289Malawi1341221039125Mauritius24Rwanda13960814108Seychelles10468938Sudan14710751Swaziland61350.6Uganda11112925100Zambia71281.5Zimbabwe158164964.32
93 Specific Policies determining FDI 1. Rules and regulations governing the entry and establishment of foreign investors in a host countrye.g., prohibition of entry, restrictions on ownership (joint venture requirement) or liberalization of entry2. Treatment of foreign investorsnon-discrimination in the treatment of foreign and domestic firms (NT)preferential treatment of foreign or domestic firms (e.g., incentives)distinguish treatment before and after entry3. Protection of foreign investorsexpropriation and nationalization; fund transfers; and dispute settlement are key issues in protection
10METHODOLOGYIndependent Variables included in the Study
12METHODOLOGY Natural Resource Intensity (RES): As posited by the eclectic theory, all else equal, countries that are endowed with natural resources would receive more FDI.Omission of a measure of natural resources from the estimation, may cause the estimates to be biasedWe include the share of minerals and oil in total exports to capture the availability of natural resource endowments.A positive determinant is expected
13Market Size:The size of the host market, which also represents the host country’s economic conditions and the potential demand for their output as well, is an important element in FDI decision-makings.Quoting Scaperlanda and Mauer (1969)FDI responds positively to the market size ‘once it reaches a threshold level that is large enough to allow economies of scale and efficient utilization of resources’.To proxy for market size (SIZE), we follow the literature and use real GDP per capita.The expected sign is positive.
14Labour cost:Labour cost (wage) has always been argued to be a major component of total production costNominal wage rate (WAGE) as a proxy for labour cost. We would generally expect a negative sign on the coefficientHowever, the use of wage may not be entirely correct - Skilled Labour
15Human Capital:Foreign direct investors are also concerned with the quality of the labour force in addition to its cost.A more educated labor force can learn and adopt new technology faster and is generally more productive.Higher level of human capital is a good indicator of the availability of skilled workers, which can significantly boost the locational advantage of a country.We control and test for the impact of labor quality, using the general secondary education enrollment rate (SER).
16corporate tax rates (TAX): Higher tax levels of the host country would be expected to deter potential FDI.However, there seems to be mixed empirical results as for instance Kemsley (1998) and Billington (1999) have found the host country tax rate to be a significant factor in determining FDI inflows. Wheeler and Mody’s (1992) have found the tax rate of the host country to be insignificant.
17Openness (xmgdp):It is a standard hypothesis that openness promotes FDIEmpirical evidences (Jun and Singh, 1996) exist to back up the hypothesis that higher levels of exports lead to higher FDI inflows.Trade/GDP has been included in the regression to examine the impact of openness on FDI.
18Political instability (POL) Political instability and the frequent occurrences of disorder ‘create an unfavorable business climate which seriously erodes the risk-averse foreign investors' confidence in the local investment climate and thereby repels FDI away’ (Schneider and Frey 1985).Political risk rating as provided by the International Country Risk Guide (2006) has been used as a proxy for Political Instability.
19Regression EquationThe dependent variable, FDI, is measured as the net foreign direct investment inflow as a percentage of GDP (see Adeisu,2002; Quarzi, 2005; Goospeed et al, 2006).
20DATA SOURCE The main sources of data series are: International Monetary Fund’s International Financial Statistics (IFS) (2006),World Development Indicators (WDI) (2006).Political risk ratings are obtained from internal country Risk Guide (2006).
21ANALYSIS The Panel data techniques have been employed. The use of panel data technique allows us to determine the temporal evolution of groups of countries rather than analyzing the temporal behaviour of each of them.Panel data may have group effects, time effects, or both. These effects are either fixed effect or random effect.The Hausman test specification, the test recommends the use of fixed effects model
22Panel data estimates : Fixed effects (20 countries x 16 years (1990-2005)) Independent VariablesFixed effect estimatesConstantRessizewagexmgdppolSer-3.64(-1.75)*0.063(2.26)**0.19(2.46)**-0.086(-2.13)**0.34(4.13)***-0.12(-2.25)**(2.22)*R2Number of obsHausman Test0.45320Prob>chi2=0.052