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DP/MYP Curriculum Planning: from Z to A Amsterdam Conference 5th March Dr. Tristian Stobie. Head of Diploma Programme development
© International Baccalaureate Organization 2007 Significant Concepts in this presentation 1.The essential coherence of the Diploma / MYP continuum 2.Creative Teacher Professionalism 3.Curriculum as a process Page 2
© International Baccalaureate Organization 2007 Questions considered in this presentation: 1.What is a coherent and consistent curriculum continuum? 2.In what ways are the DP and MYP coherent and consistent? 3.What are the planned differences between them and what are the consequences of these? 4.What do schools and teachers need to do to effectively plan diploma / MYP curriculum progression? 5.What is the IB doing to support diploma / MYP curriculum progression? Page 3
© International Baccalaureate Organization 2007 Areas of Interaction fundamental to this presentation Approaches to learning / approaches to teaching Human Ingenuity Page 4
© International Baccalaureate Organization 2007 Assessment: How will participants show what they have understood? What will constitute acceptable evidence of understanding? Activity: ‘Evaluate the coherence and consistency of the DP/MYP curriculum continuum in your school.’ And: Heads and Coordinators: Identify three leadership and three management strategies to improve practice and plan for their implementation in your school. Teachers: Identify three pedagogical principles and / or curriculum planning principles that you could develop to support practice and plan for their incorporation into your classroom. Page 5
© International Baccalaureate Organization 2007 What is Curriculum? Narrow to broad definitions A statement of what we value and/or a statement of what we can assess? A straightjacket or an activity developing student potential? Alive and dynamic or static and dead? Who is responsible for it? Out of date? [cultural transmission: what mattered in the past] What drives it? Process, content, objectives? Macro view: Who evaluates it? Is it fit for purpose? Is the intended curriculum the same as the experienced curriculum? The only curriculum that ultimately matters is the experienced curriculum. Does it equip students for life? Page 6
© International Baccalaureate Organization 2007 What is Curriculum coherence? Coherence is concerned with the total experience a student gets from the formal and informal curriculum and incorporates concepts including balance, breadth, relevance, engagement and individual growth. The curriculum is ‘in harmony’. ‘A coherent curriculum like a poem, has a distinctive form and adds up to a satisfying whole that in some way makes sense to those who experience it’. ‘Coherence is more usefully seen as an active and continuing process of constructing meaning from the range of experiences offered.’ [Barrett, Jamison and Weston 1992] Page 7
© International Baccalaureate Organization 2007 What is consistency in a curriculum continuum? Experiences are appropriate to the developmental stage of the student and sensibly arranged and ordered. ‘Continuity necessitates the presence of an agreed curriculum plan….continuity implies agreement at the level of aims and objectives, selection and organization of content, skills and methods of assessment.’ ‘Planned discontinuity as opposed to unplanned discontinuity would seem to have a clear purpose…planned discontinuity is a deliberate change in practice with the intention of stimulating growth and development….it could be manifest in a deliberate and abrupt change of teaching or content as a symbol of the process of maturity or growing older. The disequilibrium caused by such experience challenges children to accommodate to it and to develop new ways of learning.’ [Derricott 1985] Page 8
© International Baccalaureate Organization 2007 What does this mean for DP /MYP curriculum planning? Being identical is not the same as being coherent and consistent. In fact some differences can be productive provided they are planned for, developmentally appropriate and understood. For an educational continuum to be consistent the programmes must be compatible. There must be a clear understanding of, and agreement with, a common curriculum philosophy and a shared understanding of similarities and any planned differences. Page 9
© International Baccalaureate Organization 2007 In what ways are the DP and MYP coherent and consistent? A Common Philosophy inspired by Alec Peterson, Gerard Renauld and others including: 1.Creative Teacher Professionalism / professional learning community 2.International and intercultural focus 3.Breadth and Balance 4.Holistic nature 5.interdisciplinary understanding 6.Discipline based 7.Learning to learn for life 8.The will to act: Challenge education. Page 10
© International Baccalaureate Organization 2007 creative teacher professionalism Teachers have the critical role of interpreting, developing and delivering the curriculum [high trust]. Teachers have to create their own course of study, ensuring the curriculum experienced by students is aligned with the prescribed course aims, objectives and content and is adapted to the local context. Effective delivery of the curriculum requires teachers to be reflective practitioners who are critically self aware of their own teaching and who model the approaches the expect of their students [ATL/ATT]. Taken from the Diploma Programme: from principles into practice Page 11
© International Baccalaureate Organization 2007 A professional learning community ‘Professional learning involves a process of critical self ‑ reflection in which teachers develop a deeper understanding of what it means to be an effective internationally minded teacher who is able to support students in demonstrating the intended learning outcomes prescribed by the curriculum. Professional development is an essential part of this process.’ Diploma Programme: from principles into practice Page 12
© International Baccalaureate Organization 2007 International and intercultural focus The ‘fundamental concept’ in the IB continuum: ‘Mutual enrichment by the discovery of ways of feeling and thinking that are different from our own’ [G. Renaud 1991]. Foundation for aims, objectives and assessment criteria in all diploma and MYP courses. Requirement to study two languages and expectation to support ‘mother tongue’ development. Learning about different cultures through language intercultural competence, literature in translation. Understanding multiple perspectives [pedagogical consequences]. Informal/hidden curriculum. Page 13
© International Baccalaureate Organization 2007 Breadth, Balance Educating the whole person. ‘We believed that the needs and interests [of year olds] included the moral, aesthetic and practical education of the whole person.’ Alec Peterson in Schools Across Frontiers. ‘Plus est en vous’ Kurt Hahn Hexagon, Octagon curriculum models [Note: MYP is broader and more balanced than the DP] CAS and curriculum core in DP A of I in MYP Importance of informal /hidden curriculum Page 14
© International Baccalaureate Organization 2007 Holistic nature and interdisciplinary understanding A of I, interdisciplinary units [MYP] Concurrency of learning: ‘Students are expected in make connections between different academic disciplines and not study subjects in isolation of each other. Teachers and schools have a responsibility to help students make meaningful connections between different disciplines…’ [DP: from principles into practice] Theory of Knowledge Page 15
© International Baccalaureate Organization 2007 Discipline based Curriculum models [hexagon, octagon] emphasis discrete academic disciplines ‘Interdisciplinarity is excellent if it is firmly rooted in disciplinarity. Each subject is not an end in itself but it must be an efficient tool. We must keep its identity and especially its own methodology. Only on that basis will we be able to construct progressively a serious interdisciplinarity. Otherwise we will lead our students to mental confusion and to superficial surveys.’ [G. Renaud 1989] Diploma stronger subject orientation, MYP greater interdisciplinary emphasis Page 16
© International Baccalaureate Organization 2007 Learning to learn for life ATL ‘The aim of general education is not the acquisition of general knowledge, but the development of the general powers of the mind to operate in a variety of ways of thinking.’ Alec Peterson Schools Across Frontiers Metacognitive approaches: Understanding yourself as a learner and a teacher Independent enquiry [Personal project, extended essay] Critical thinking skills and developing multiple perspectives Page 17
© International Baccalaureate Organization 2007 The Will to Act The mission of the IB Compassionate engagement Principled action [the learner profile] The Ultimate assessment question: ‘What do students do with their education?’ Page 18
© International Baccalaureate Organization 2007 Planned differences University recognition required external examinations in the DP: ‘At the IB Diploma level, the constraints of the forthcoming examination, depending in turn on university entrance requirements, impose serious limitations on the implementation of the curriculum that would really correspond to the philosophy of an international system of education. The age group for which the ISA [now MYP] has been developed is more appropriate for the purpose since the perspective of an examination is remote enough to allow more freedom to schools and teachers.’ [G, Renaud 1991 ] Page 19
© International Baccalaureate Organization 2007 Potential consequence of examinations in the Diploma Programme ‘ On paper yes, they have a common philosophy, I know that in Mathematics in both sets of documents they emphasize the usefulness and beauty and cultural background of Mathematics. In practice I feel that there is so little time to complete the Mathematics programme for the DP so its more about learning skills students need to pass the examination.’ [DP and MYP Maths teacher]. ‘In the DP there is a get down to business, we have got to get this done by this deadline kind of grocery store list of things to do that begins immediately at the start of 11 th grade.’ [ DP and MYP English teacher]. Page 20
© International Baccalaureate Organization 2007 Potential consequence of examinations in the Diploma Programme  Shift in teaching approach to correct answer compromises / teaching to the test. Teachers perceive they have less creative input into curriculum design. Learning objectives clearly identified in the DP are marginalized: ‘International examination systems hold particular responsibilities where it is extremely difficult to reward individual learning gains in some of the important curricular objectives relating to the international nature of the programme. In turn the lack of visibility of such objectives in testing arrangements leads easily to a lack of acknowledgement of their significance with decreased importance attached to them by parents, administrators, teachers and students.’ [adapted from J.J. Thompson] Page 21
© International Baccalaureate Organization 2007 What do schools and teachers need to do to effectively plan diploma / MYP curriculum progression? Be fully aware of the implications of ‘creative teacher professionalism’ in both programmes. Teachers must feel they own their courses of study. Understand the common philosophy and principles in both programmes. Collaborative teaching and learning environments and time are provided. Professional learning communities are supported. Principles of curriculum planning using ‘understanding by design’ apply just as much the DP as they do to the MYP. Understand the central role of school management in developing the coherence and consistency of subject specific vertical planning between grade levels and programmes. Page 22
© International Baccalaureate Organization 2007 What do schools and teachers need to do to effectively plan diploma / MYP curriculum progression? Sense of urgency and time pressure should be just as evident in the MYP. Why do we need external examinations to motivate us? Students need to learn, naturally as a part of ATL, effective approaches to testing and examinations as well as enquiry based work. Scheduling is critical. Teachers need time in the MYP to cover the concepts, skills and content needed to prepare for the DP. Increasing significance of web / IT based learning environments and support Page 23
© International Baccalaureate Organization 2007 School Leadership ‘Doing the right things’ Creating a Professional learning community: A shared vision of the school values and mission, which is consistent with the IB’s mission statement and values Continuous and ongoing commitment to improvement A culture of collaboration that is embedded into working practices—trust and risk ‑ taking are encouraged, teachers openly share their professional practice Emphasis on the school culture, not just on organizational structures A focus on and commitment to learning rather than teaching Supportive, shared and devolved leadership that includes teachers as well as school leaders—all adults in the school, as well as students, should demonstrate and model a commitment to lifelong learning and to the IB learner profile; the school, not just individuals within the school, needs to be a learning organization, continually reflecting and evaluating current practice with a view to improving Page 24
© International Baccalaureate Organization 2007 School Leadership  ‘Doing the right things’ Emphasis on establishing and evaluating effective processes for curriculum development: Prioritising Clearly defining roles On going curriculum evaluation [curriculum council] Recruitment [and retention] of excellent teachers and leaders Establishing common, usable processes for codifying curriculum and curriculum planning. Establishing common usable processes for evaluating the curriculum. Page 25
© International Baccalaureate Organization 2007 School Management ‘Doing things right’ Proactive not reactive Teacher appraisal linked to clear objectives, accountabilities and professional development Productive use of planning time and planning processes Clear responsibilities, expectations and accountabilities for vertical and horizontal curriculum planning [head of department, heads of year, individual subject teacher] Clear communication plan Page 26
© International Baccalaureate Organization 2007 Vertical planning from Z [DP] to A [MYP] ‘The goal of vertical planning is to sequence learning to ensure continuity and progression’ [MYP from principles to practice ] Aims and objectives are prescribed by IB in both the DP and MYP Aims and objectives are consistent and coherent between the MYP and DP Planned difference: in the DP most [not all] content is defined and aligned with objectives by the IB, in MYP each school has to select and align subject specific content with objectives. Why? Flexibility to use content from national curricula in MYP and a constraint imposed by the need for external examinations in DP. Page 27
© International Baccalaureate Organization 2007 Vertical planning from Z [DP] to A [MYP] Assessment Principles and Practices in DP and MYP are consistent and coherent: ‘Assessment should support the curricular and philosophical goals of the programme through the encouragement of good classroom practice and appropriate student learning’ [Diploma Programme Assessment: Principles and Practice] ‘’Summative assessment is not just an activity conducted after learning has taken place, but should be designed to have an integrated role in the teaching and learning of the subject.” [op cit] ‘build a higher level thought’ Bloom’s [and other taxonomies] Page 28
© International Baccalaureate Organization 2007 Vertical planning from Z [DP] to A [MYP] How do we make sure students have enough skills and know enough content to do the DP? Breadth vs depth [importance of generative concepts] MYP should be every bit as ‘demanding’ as DP Importance of the schedule. One example: Integrated science can be an excellent preparation of DP Science but sufficient time is needed. Differentiation. Students need to be challenged Languages supported? [mother tongue entitlement supported in MYP?] Page 29
© International Baccalaureate Organization 2007 What is the IB doing to support diploma / MYP curriculum progression? Close collaboration on programme developments. Exemplar backward mapping materials are being produced and shared. More consistent terminology. Developments in the Diploma Years have been influenced by the MYP and PYP [learner profile, WSEE, DP: from principles into practice guide, IBCC core]. Diploma Years as distinct from Diploma Programme. The MYP / Diploma gap project Page 30
© International Baccalaureate Organization 2007 Page 31 MYP / Diploma gap project This project is a response to a need identified by the IB Board at the Quality Retreat of 2007: There is a need to investigate the effectiveness of the transition of students from the MYP into the Diploma. The outcomes of this research can be put to: a)instrumental uses (to inform curriculum development) b)strategic and symbolic uses (to promote the IB programmes among the wider community of IB stakeholders). c)contribute to organizational learning by developing conceptual understanding about curriculum.
© International Baccalaureate Organization 2007 Page 32 Project aims To investigate the MYP as a preparation for the Diploma. The project aims to focus on inquiry into implementation of the MYP. How is the MYP being used by schools? Why do schools choose to implement the MYP? Does the DP support continuing development of MYP students? What practices are used in schools to effectively transition students between programmes?
© International Baccalaureate Organization 2007 Page 33 Latest data For the last 4 years students have been registered with a ‘code for life’. In other words, students registered for MYP keep the same code and can be tracked through DP. DP grades for 2007 and 2008 can be analysed and compared with MYP grades from 2005 and 2006.
© International Baccalaureate Organization 2007 Page 34 Latest data – limitations Data is limited, many DP coordinators don’t acknowledge the code for life when registering students. Such a small proportion of MYP students are registered and those that are may come from schools that have certain characteristics that may make comparison with all DP schools unreasonable.
© International Baccalaureate Organization 2007 Page 35 Pass rate comparison
© International Baccalaureate Organization 2007 Page 36 Grade comparison, 2007
© International Baccalaureate Organization 2007 Page 37 Grade comparison, 2008
© International Baccalaureate Organization 2007 Creative teacher professionalism The IB is itself a product of creative teacher professionalism Develop and share good practice Use the OCC Page 38
© International Baccalaureate Organization 2007 Assessment: How will participants show what they have understood? What will constitute acceptable evidence of understanding? Activity: ‘Evaluate the coherence and consistency of the DP/MYP curriculum continuum in your school.’ And: Heads and Coordinators: Identify three leadership and three management strategies to improve practice and plan for their implementation in your school. Teachers: Identify three pedagogical and/or curriculum planning principles principles that you could develop to support practice and plan for their incorporation into your classroom. Page 39
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