Presentation on theme: "Drought in Isfahan International Hydrological Program Division of Water Sciences International Hydrological Program Division of Water Sciences Ministry."— Presentation transcript:
Drought in Isfahan International Hydrological Program Division of Water Sciences International Hydrological Program Division of Water Sciences Ministry of Energy I.R. Iran
IDI is a recent initiative proposed by Iran, submitted to the 35th session of the General Conference of UNESCO in 2009 proposing to establish the International Drought Initiative. Introducing the International Drought Initiative (IDI) can be a starting point and driving force for a global movement under the supervision of UNESCO-IHP.
The proposal of this initiative was at first prepared by RCUWM-Tehran on behalf of the Ministry of Energy, I.R. Iran, It was delivered to Iranian national Commission for UNESCO for being presented in UNESCO General Conference An IHP National Committee Meeting was organized with the presence of representatives from Afghanistan, Pakistan, India, Malaysia, Japan, Oman, Kuwait and Tajikistan. The draft proposal was put on the floor and reviewed by the attendees. IHP Committees Meeting, Tehran
The International Drought Initiative (IDI) was approved by the 19 th IHP Intergovernmental Council held in Paris, France July 2010. The secretariat for this initiative is in Tehran, Iran. 19 th IHP Intergovernmental council
Droughts are symbols of water scarcity while floods are verses of too much water. In arid and semi-arid regions of the world such as the middle east, climate change has a greater impact on water resources and several parameters such as: - the increase in drought periods and intensities, - decrease in precipitation and increase in evaporation, Several parameters including drought intensification, period, area under coverage, considerable economic and social damages in long-term, has caused this phenomenon to be amongst one of the most fatal disasters. Before coming to the objectives of this initiative, an introduction on drought situation in Iran is presented.
≤ Iran has an extreme drought situation in the world
-15% : with humid and semi humid conditions. - 20% : with Semi dry conditions, - 65% : with dry regions, Central and Southeast sections include huge desert areas. Located in an Arid and Semi-Arid region. Area: 1.648 million km 2 Population: 70 million Average Rainfall: 250 mm
8 Blue line : mean annual precipitation of 250 mm The country is divided in two parts” 1- a semi dry area with a mean annual precip. > 250 mm 2- a dry area with a mean annual precip. < 250 mm
. - In the Northern and Western parts, most of water resources are surface water, while in the Center and East are Groundwater (Aquifers). - These conditions lead to uneven distribution of population. - More than 50% of the population live in the western and northern regions, while about 70% of water resources are located in these areas.
400 BCM Average annual precipitation 130 BCM Renewable water resources 270 BCM Average annual evaporation & transpiration 92 BCM Surface runoff 38 BCM Seepage to alluvial aquifers Annual Water Resources in Billion Cubic Meters (BCM)
At Present, Iran is facing water scarcity : Main reasons : Fast growing rate of population, Droughts and climate change Over-use and Mismanagement of water resources Demand of more water in different sectors Decline of water quality Delay in constructing new water projects
One of the most dangerous hazards of nature in the middle east region including Iran is “Drought” which greatly affects water resources. A famous quote from King Syrus of Iran, 3000 years ago, shows high importance of droughts: “ I wish the country would be secure from two disasters : enemies, drought. “ It is related to a deficiency of precipitation over an extended period of time, usually for a season or more. It also impacts : food production, life expectancy, economic performance of large regions.
The country has past one of the catastrophic droughts in the recent decade. It has severely affected the country, leaving over half the country's population vulnerable to food and water insecurity. In the period of fall 2010, the country past the worst period of drought in its history. The amount of precipitation during this time, has decreased to 70 % of its normal period of 40 years. According to the United Nations estimations the damages to agriculture and livestock are around $2.5 billion annually during drought periods.
In recent years many rivers and lakes in Iran dried out particularly in summer due to deficit of precipitation and drought intensity.
Life running in Isfahan highly depends on Zayandehrood river. The historically city of Isfahan is located in the central part of Iran and it has a population of around 3 million. The river passes through the city providing water for its upstream and downstream area. A reservoir dam has been constructed with the aim of providing various requirements..
Due to drought intensity during the recent years, the water volume behind the dam has decreased annually and therefore sufficient amount of water is not released for permanently filling the river. Unfortunately as demonstrated in the photo, the city looses its beauty during summer..
During the recent years one of the most overwhelming damaging impacts of droughts on Iran’s water resources has been on Uromieh lake in the west north of Iran. Uromieh Lake is the most saline lake in the world.
Basin Area: 51876 km 2 Cultivable Area: 1300000 Ha Irrigated Area: 460000 Ha Rain fed Area: 840000 Ha The surface has now decreased to 1/3 and the volume has declined to ½. Water level is 2 meters under the normal depth. The normal volume of this lake is 30 BCM, while at present it holds only 15 BCM and estimations demonstrate that during the coming years by the decrease in rainfall and increase in evaporation, the destiny of this lake would be similar to Aral Sea basin in the Middle Asia.
Significant drawdown in the lake’s water level Increase in the lake’s water salinity Appearance of salty released land and dispersion of salts by wind Considerable decrease of the ecological conditions
2010 2002 1995 Experts believe this may have two main reasons: o 70% of this is related to drought intensity and climate change o 30% is related to human activities such as dam construction on upstream rivers.
This critical situation in Iran and the region demonstrates that drought is an important issue highly affecting water resources management. Hence dealing with this issue as a local phenomenon could not properly satisfy our needs. Therefore, studying this natural disaster from the view point of regional and international cooperation could lead to a better understanding, and could contribute to mitigating its impacts.
Helping different countries specially developing and less developed countries to prepare and compile strategic and practical drought management plans. Develop and build capacities in drought monitoring, mitigation, preparedness techniques and methodologies.
IDI Objectives Surveying the current situation of drought management in selected countries in different aspects; Surveying the plans and measures of international and regional governmental /non-governmental entities involved in drought management; China - Drought
IDI Objectives Holding international and regional events to exchange knowledge and experience related to different aspects of drought management; Prepare and compile short, mid and long- term plans for IDI. Supply financial, technical and logistic resources for IDI activities. Shrinking Lake - Chad
UNESCO-IHP North American Drought Monitor European Drought Centre (EDC) Drought Information Centre (OIC) Drought Coordination Centre (DCC) Drought Monitoring Centre for the Greater Horn of Africa Northeast Regional Climate Centre Drought Management Centre for Southeastern Europe Monitoring Drought Climate Prediction Centre (NOAA) New York Drought Information Drought Watch Asian Disaster Reduction Centre (ADRS) Natural Hazards Centre Drought Assistance website (Gov. of Australia) Recognizing International Drought Organizations
Contacting managers of the following international organizations, inviting them to be a member of the IDI Executive Committee (EC) and receiving their willingness to cooperate. This resulted in receiving some nominations for the IDI- EC. o International Research and Training Center Erosion and Sedimentation in China (IRTCES) o Climatology and Remote Sensing Center of University of California (CHRS) o World Metrological Organization (WMO) o The International Center for Water Hazards (ICHARM) -Japan o United Nations International Strategy for Disaster Reduction (UN–ISDR) Correspondences with International Organization
Holding several coordinating sessions Holding several consultation meetings Preparing the draft road map, organization chart and work plan
Designing and launching a website for IDI (www.idi-drought.com)www.idi-drought.com Developing the IDI website on the basis of SharePoint Designing the IDI logo Forming the National Advisory Committee in close cooperation with RCUWM and other relevant entities
Management Consultative Committee Executive Committee Planning, research and public relations affairs Proposed Organization Chart for IDI
o Workshop on Natural Water Disaster, Brazil, 2010 o Training Workshop on Application of GIS and RS in Water Resources Management, Oman, Dec. 2010. o International Training Workshop on Hydrology, Pakistan, 2010 o Second International Istanbul Water Forum, May 2011 o First National Conference on Drought & Climate Change, June 2010 o Iranian National Committee of IHP Introducing IDI in Int. events of the Centre
Proposal for the establishment of an International Drought Initiative (IDI) The Intergovernmental Council of the International Hydrological Programme of UNESCO, Welcoming the proposal submitted to the 35th session of UNESCO General Conference by the Government of the I.R. of Iran which was received positively by UNESCO Member States and transmitted to the Intergovernmental Council of IHP for further consideration and decision; Noting that under the growing threat of water scarcity, droughts may have different economic, social and environmental impacts depending on their intensity and duration, while their occurrence is not limited to a specific climatic and geographic region; Noting also that droughts usually affect vast regions with a more widespread and extensive range of impacts that evolve over time and last for a longer period; Drawing attention to the fact that there is limited harmonized effort among different concerned countries, universities, international organizations and UN agencies to coordinate and share experiences available on adaptation and mitigation of drought at regional as well as international levels; Recalling that the establishment of an International Drought Initiative (IDI) as a global platform was very well received in the regional meeting of the IHP National Committees of West and Central Asia held in Tehran, Iran, in July 2009; Recognizing the invaluable expertise and capacities available in the I.R. of Iran and its efforts in addressing recurrent and severe droughts as a common phenomena Decides to establish the IDI within IHP as a long-term initiative through which the research activities related to droughts as well as the development of capacities to address such events will be designed, coordinated and implemented; Invites the I.R. of Iran to host the secretariat of IDI and provide the required institutional and financial support towards the establishment and continuity of this initiative; Invites the I.R. of Iran to discuss in further details the activities of this initiative with the IHP Secretariat and the UNESCO network of centres and institutes; Calls upon Member States to actively support the initiative and contribute to its development and implementation to the highest extent of their technical and financial available resources. Decides to inscribe in the agenda of the 20th session of the IHP Council an item related to the development of the IDI within IHP.
Further communication with relevant International Entities Holding the executive committee of IDI Allocating specific budget for IDI activities Holding a meeting at the national/ international level with the aim of introducing wing IDI Reviewing and completing the road map Recruiting active and qualified manpower based on the duties Reviewing and finalizing the organizational chart Holding an international conference on Drought Allocating a premises for IDI secretariat Organizing a consultation meeting