2Schedule Day 1 Day 2 Day 3 Morning: Lecture Afternoon: Pool Skills DivingEmergency ProceduresSkills TestWritten Test
3ObjectivesDivers become well versed in the knowledge and skills necessary to safely perform underwater operations below solid ice.Identify knowledge related to command and control.Establish the psychological effects of diving in an overhead environment .Execute the precautions necessary for safe diving in overhead environment.Perform lost diver procedure under the ice.
4Overview Psychological Aspects Special Equipment 3/31/2017OverviewPsychological AspectsSpecial EquipmentEquipment Problems Unique to ICE DivingEnvironmental Conditions Usually Associated with ICE DivingEmergency ProceduresIce diving Techniques
53/31/2017Public Safety Dive operations, statistically is one of the most dangerous jobs performed by public safety personnel. The information and skills provided over the next three days help reduce risks, ultimately it is up to you to continue your education and practical skills.Share with your students that this three day, 24 hour program will introduce them to the information and skills to perform safe and effective Public Safety Ice Dive Operations, but ultimately it is up to each student to practice these skills to become more proficient.In 2004 Fire Fighters lost on an average of 100 men/year, police 150 men/year, Divers 4 men/year. (10+ if you add Swift Water)
6Psychological Effects of Diving Under Solid Ice 3/31/2017Psychological Effects of Diving Under Solid IceDiscuss the fact that the stress you may be feeling is due to stress factors associated with diving under the ice.Ask students what they think the stressors are?Fear or ANXIETIESColdLost under iceNo clear path to surface
7How Do You Cope With Fear of the Unknown? 3/31/2017How Do You Cope With Fear of the Unknown?Trust in your tenders.Trust in your equipment.Trust in your safety diver.Trust in yourself.How do your SOP’s come into play with trust?Discuss these fears with your students.Ask “Can fear be a psychological factor?Have you ever witnessed fear effecting someone’s judgment?Does fear effect physical function? What are some examples?SOP’s are a written procedure that is known to all. This can lend structure to procedure even in the worst of situations.
8Psychological Effect of Cold 3/31/2017Psychological Effect of ColdExposure to Cold WaterExposure to Cold WeatherPhysicalCold water exposure – Hypothermia– Increased respiratory rate.– Cardiac issuesPsychological– Loss of concentration– Loss of ability to problem solveExtreme survivalTransition: Given the effects of cold lets discuss the specialized equipment that combats cold.
9Special Equipment Dry Suits Full Face Mask Chest Harness Pony Bottles 3/31/2017Special EquipmentDry SuitsFull Face MaskChest HarnessPony BottlesSurface Supplied AirIce Rescue SuitsWarm WaterWarming TentsIce AugerChainsawDISCUSS THESE ITEMS. DISCUSS THE AVAILABILTY OF THESE ITEMS IN THEIR AREA. Which of these does your team not use.Discuss which ones can reduce the psychological or physical effects of cold.
10Equipment Problems Unique to Ice Diving 3/31/2017Equipment Problems Unique to Ice DivingFree-FlowsFoggingHose Connections FreezingEquipment Becoming BrittleDiscuss the problems associated with cold water diving.Do problems with equipment affect psychological attitudes?What do we do to prevent problems.Free-flows not breathing off regulator in extreme coldFogging always a problem use antifogging solutionHose connections freezing prevent by keeping equipment as warm as possible when connections are made. Then a bucket of warm water as last resort.Equipment becoming brittle. Keep equipment as warm as possible before dive make as many adjustment to equipment before exposure to cold. finally be gentle, or things break.
11Environmental Considerations Unique to Ice Diving 3/31/2017Environmental Considerations Unique to Ice DivingTemperatureWind/Wind ChillWetSometimes water on top of the ice can be a problem when trying to keep warm.
12Temperature Hypothermia Cold Stress Frost Bite 3/31/2017TemperatureHypothermiaCold StressFrost BiteOther Effects Of Excessive ColdRapid Heart RateBreathing a lot (hyperventilation)Discuss the importance of monitoring team personnel.What behaviors signal:Hypothermia Initial Symptoms (7 to 14 min, hypo can set in on surface)ShiveringDizzy, drowsyWithdrawn behaviorIrritabilityConfusionSlowed, slurred speechAltered visionStumblingCold Stress similar to hypothermia guys get restless, irritable and discontentFrost Bite SymptomsInitially redness in light skin or grayish in dark skinTingling, stinging sensationTurns numb, yellowish, waxy or gray colorFeels cold, stiff, woodyBlisters may developOther effects of excessive cold
13Wind Wind Chill Factor Snow Blindness 3/31/2017WindWind Chill FactorGreater wind speed, greater loss of body heatSnow BlindnessInflammation and sensitivity of the eyes caused by ultraviolet rays of the sun reflected by the snow or iceDiscuss wind chill and it’s effects on equipment and personnel.The greater the wind speed, the faster we lose body heat. Wind chill can make a fairly moderate winter day equivalent to a much colder one—sometimes dangerously so. For example, a day with a temperature of 30 ° Fahrenheit might seem of little concern, but combined with winds of 10 miles per hour, it can feel like it's only 16° Fahrenheit.Discuss the importance of eye protection. Even if the sun is not shining.Symptomsgritty feeling in eyesredness and tearingeye movement will cause painheadache
14Wet Feet: Water Proof Boots Required 3/31/2017WetFeet: Water Proof Boots RequiredHands: Water Proof Gloves RequiredNature of police and firefighters they may run out in duty uniform. But in a long standing operation preparation is more important than speed and essential over time. So have a bag ready for cold emergencies.Feet—Layer sock use polypropylene liners wool and wear boots. No Tennis shoes.Hands—layer polypropylene glove liners are good with warm water proof snow gloves.Wet is bad in cold weather. Proper clothing is essential. Layers are the best protection. You need proper winter gloves and boots.Importance of taking care of your shore support personnel.
15You Can’t Park That There! 3/31/2017You Can’t Park That There!This is a transition slide 2002 North of Fargo, ND on Detroit LakesWe are going to discuss:Equipment (any special equipment needed for this op? are you trained?)DiversTendersDive No Dive Decision
16Equipment - Divers Dry Suit w/ Power Inflator 3/31/2017Equipment - DiversDry Suit w/ Power InflatorFull Face Mask w/ CommunicationsB/C w/ Power InflatorSPG (mandatory)Depth GaugeCompassTiming DeviceDiscuss each and there importance.Full face mask w/communication Cover face with mask use natural breathing. Ice breath can sometimes be the cause of drowning also your heart rates drops.How can you communicate without communication.One of the psychological effects of being under ice is being alone. Nice to be able to talk to someone.Tender monitor divers comfort, trouble and problem solve
17Equipment - Divers Underwater Light 80 cu. ft. tank (min) 3/31/2017Equipment - DiversUnderwater Light80 cu. ft. tank (min)Regulators That Are Environmentally Packed/SealedTotally Redundant Air SupplyChest Harness w/Locking Carabiner (mandatory)Underwater Light, can cause entanglement hazard. Streamline gearDiscuss regulator care during cold weather divingDiscuss redundant air. Required by OSHA.Discuss cheat harness (Mandatory). Connect a diver hard line to surface. Rope must be rated for correct capacity.Discuss Locking carabineer vs.. snap shackle
18Equipment - Divers Two Cutting Tools 3/31/2017Equipment - DiversTwo Cutting ToolsSurface Supplied Air Source Would Be OptimalThe U.S. Department of Labor OSHA division has regulations for Surface-supplied air diving. Regulations (Standards - 29 CFR) Surface supplied air divingSpecial training, not a quick set up time.
19Equipment - Tenders Warm Clothing (Layered) Hood or Hat 3/31/2017Equipment - TendersWarm Clothing (Layered)Hood or HatFace ProtectionSun GlassesInsulated & Waterproof BootsWaterproof GlovesSnow Fence/PalletStress that to do the job of an equipment tender you need to be ready and the best way to be ready is to be warm. Dress for success.Shore support are backbone of any Dive Op.Make sure proper clothing and equipment to do the job.Help maintain operation FOCUS.
20Equipment - Tenders Ice Rescue Suits for Personnel Cutting Hole 3/31/2017Equipment - TendersIce Rescue Suits for Personnel Cutting HoleIce Crampons for Personnel on the IceCommunication EquipmentWarm WaterFirst Aid EquipmentIce rescue suits for personnel cutting holePersonnel should be fitted for buoyancy 30 to 35 pounds.Personnel can last in ice conditions for up to 5 hoursIce crampons for personnel on the iceCommunication equipmentFirst aid equipmentMake sure your first aid kit is equipped
21Drown Proof Your Team Members 3/31/2017Drown Proof Your Team MembersPFD’sWithin 25’ of the WaterMaintain Good Footing Around the HoleCramponsCinders and SandSnow FencingSelf Rescue TechniquesIce AwlsEveryone within 25 ft. of the water will be in a personal floatation device PFD.Your BC must be on before you put weight belt on.What other precautions do you need?Maintain good footing around holeSelf rescue techniques – Ice Awls, use corners of triangle to get back onto the ice shelf.Common senseSafety officer should be assigned to oversee entire operation.Rescue personnel assigned to watch over operation and deploy as RIT (rapid intervention team) if someone on your team gets into trouble. ?Self rescue techniques Ice Awls use corner of triangle to get back on ice shelf
22Ice Strength Guidelines 3/31/2017Ice Strength GuidelinesP = 50 T2P = Load Bearing CapacityT = Ice ThicknessThin IceMaximum Load2 inchesOne Person Walking4 inchesOne Person Fishing/ Group Walking5 inchesSnowmobile8 inchesCar12 inchesLight truckThe only absolute in ice safety is to stay off the ice! Remember that this formula for ice strength is based on clear, solid lake ice with no strength reducing factors. It is used to calculate short-term loads in motion, not stationary ones.Pass out handouts to students for public safety guidelines.P = 50 T2P = load bearing capacityT = Ice thicknessExample: If the ice is clear, strong, and 3 inches thick, then:P = 50 (3)2P = 50 (9)P = 450 lbs
23Review of Ice Which is Strongest?? 3/31/2017Review of Ice Which is Strongest??Frazil IceSnow IceClear IceCandled IceWhich is the strongest? ClearTheoretically: Ice w/air under it holds no weight
24Clear Ice Strongest Ice Formation – Long Hard Freeze 3/31/2017Clear IceStrongest IceFormation – Long Hard FreezeClear Ice: New ice formed by a long, hard freeze in a transparent fashion. Clear ice derives its color from the water or bottom as seen through the ice. This type is generally the strongest ice
25Snow Ice Opaque or Milky Porous and Very Weak 3/31/2017Snow IceOpaque or MilkyPorous and Very WeakFormation – Snow Frozen on an Ice SheetSnow Ice: Ice that is opaque, or milky, formed when water-saturated snow freezes on an ice sheet. This ice is porous and has a low density and therefore, is very weak.Layered Ice: Forms in layers, consisting of many different types of ice or frozen and refrozen snow. This ice has a striped appearance in this cross section.
26Candled Ice Milky with Crystalline Borders Deteriorated Clear Ice 3/31/2017Candled IceMilky with Crystalline BordersDeteriorated Clear IceUnable to Support WeightCandled Ice: Milky, whitish gray ice that indicates deteriorated clear ice. The structure breaks down along its crystalline borders as it melts. This ice can still be thick, but unable to support weight.
27Frazil Ice Forms in Turbulent Water 3/31/2017Frazil IceForms in Turbulent WaterThin Film that Floats on the Water SurfaceFrazil Ice: Ice that forms in disk-shaped crystals, forming a thin film that floats on the water surface. Frazil ice forms in turbulent water, such as rivers, where the current mixes the water to a uniform temperature more quickly. When the frazil ice crystals clump together, they form pancake ice—flat, circular accumulations of frazil ice with raised edges
29Overview of Planning Risk vs. Benefit 3/31/2017Overview of Planning Risk vs. BenefitSize up task or reason for divingEvaluate dive siteEvaluate environmental conditionsSelection of equipmentSelection of personnelWhen planning an operation get a look at the big picture by using these steps.Risk vs.. BenefitSOP’s/SOG’sSize up task or reason for diving Size up or evaluation of task or reason for divingIs the purpose rescue or recovery modeRecoveryTrainingEvaluate dive siteWhere do you begin? Evaluation of the dive site:Location of last seen pointShore based vs.. ice basedNumbers of personnel neededEquipment neededHow long will the operation lastEvaluate environmental conditions:Weather changes during operationTime – Day or nightTemp.WindWill you need to set up rehab at your base of operations?Rewarm, hydration, feed, rest.What is the most important?Selection of equipment Selection of equipment:Is your team properly equipped for the type of operation you are presented with?Environmentally protected regulator ETC.What do you do? IFD Dives in dry suits, AGA Mask, Tethered, Pony bottles.Selection of personnel Selection of personnel:Make sure you the right number of personnel with theright training on scene to accomplish the operation.Divers, shore support, tenders, diver aides, safety officers,incident command, public information officer, etc.
30Planning Job Assignments Fulfillment of Safety Guidelines and SOP’s 3/31/2017PlanningJob AssignmentsFulfillment of Safety Guidelines and SOP’sTeam BriefingOnce you have an understanding of the big picture and the details you need to inform your team of the plan. Use job assignments and safety guidelines and SOP’s during a team briefing to accomplishJob assignments: Divers, tenders, divers aids, shore support, etc.All planning for diving operations must be done within your departments safety guidelines, SOP and SOG. Start with something in writing, that makes the beginning easier.Make sure you evaluate your objectives.You must make sure that all personnel involved in the operation participate in a pre-dive briefing. This briefing should include:Operational planDiving modeTeam assignmentsEntry and exit pointsEmergency procedures (first aid, ALS personnel, transportation, nearest hyperbaric chamber etc.)Radio channel assignJob assignments outline what is basic to the operationFulfillment of safety guidelines and SOP’s put in place by department as minimum standards to meet. You must meet these for your team members so everyone is as safe as possible.Team briefing gets everyone that is involved in the operation on the same page
31Survey of the Task… Why? Risk vs.. Benefit 3/31/2017Survey of the Task… Why? Risk vs.. BenefitTrainingRescueRecoveryDiscuss with students the reasons they are there. DR1 Public Safety DeathsTraining mode – no risksRescue mode – risk is greaterAs risk increases the value of what you save should be greaterRecovery mode – a little like training
323/31/2017Chain of EventsAnalyze the events and actions that have lead to the need for a Risk/Benefit Analysis.Ask the question is there an event or action in the past that would create risk for this dive?What do we mean by a chain of events?We are looking for the diver to analyze the information or the events that have lead up the Risk/Benefit analysis. The process entails analyzing the events pry and up to and including action that happened on the way to the dive.For example a primary event that leads to risk during a dive is the loss of an experienced team leader through attrition. The loss of the leader means people with less experience are making decisions. Has the team trained since the leader step away?What should happen?Another example, is diver receiving prescription glasses earlier in the day and not realizing it would make a difference diving.What should happened?Did the diver know he had a problem reading gauges.When a diver is reviewing issues that affect risk/benefit analysis the problem is the diver don’t know the events that will make a difference.
33Environmental Considerations 3/31/2017Environmental ConsiderationsIce ThicknessDepth of WaterSurface TemperatureWind Speed (Wind Chill)Underwater VisibilityAir Under the IceThe picture represents underwater visibility at timesIce thickness– If ice is thin will limit team to shore based operation unless boat is used.Depth of water– Depth must be within your teams diving limitsSurface temperature– Raising temps. Will deteriorate ice. Lowering temps will effect shore personnel and equipment.Wind speed (wind chill) – Will effect surface personnel: make sure team has right clothing and warming tents. Wind chill will also effect equipment ( keep it out of the wind and as warm as possible)Underwater visibility– Determines the amount of overlap on search patterns .May be a factor in the divers comfortAir under the ice—the formula for how much weight ice holds does not work here ice with air under it holds no weight.
34Environmental Considerations? 3/31/2017Environmental Considerations?Wind direction when divers startedWind direction shiftedDiscuss the importance of safety at all times.What happened to this diver? Two divers given ice diving gear for Christmas. Start out from shore in open water and dive under an ice shelf. The wind shifts and the ice shelf moved trapping the two divers. Found at the surface of the ice.Open waterIce Shelf Moved With the Wind
35Selection and Preparation of Equipment 3/31/2017Selection and Preparation of EquipmentAnnual InspectionMoisture Free AirDry RegulatorEnvironmental PackageKeep Equipment WarmInhalation from Regulator Above Surface in Extremely Cold Surface Temps… Free FlowAnnual inspection? Is it up to date (VIP’s, hydros, regs)Weekly/monthly inspection plans for teamsMoisture free airDry regulator Have a systematic way of taking care of equipmentEnvironmental packageKeep equipment warm as long as possibleInhalation from regulator above surface in extremely cold surface temps… Free flow
36Job Assignments Divers Tenders Support Personnel Command Staff 3/31/2017Job AssignmentsDiversTendersSupport PersonnelCommand StaffALS PersonnelWhen you make job assignments in a perfect world you are looking to match the situation with the person. What else would you say here?DiversTendersSupport PersonnelCommand StaffALS Personnel Be prepared to deal with dive situationsFor example heart attach for diver is a different situation than for persons on the streetIntroduce Dive Matrix as a tool
37Operational Safety Equipment ICE Personnel Emergency procedures 3/31/2017Operational SafetyEquipmentICEPersonnelEmergency proceduresRadio ChannelPre-Dive BriefingStay FocusedPost Dive BriefingEquipment– Environmental package, Annual service, working condition.ICE– Type, condition, thickness, cracking and changes with conditionsPersonnel– Number, training level.Emergency procedures– Lost diver, shore personnel falling through ice.Radio Channel– Everyone should be able to communicate easily.Pre-dive briefing– Dive plan, emergency procedures, minimum ending PSI, maximum depth, etc.Post-dive Briefing– Stress diffusion, Diver injury reporting, Caution on flying within 24 hoursStay Focused– Most accidents happen at the end of an operation.
38Incident Command Organization 3/31/2017Incident Command OrganizationDesignated ICOperations OfficerSafety OfficerMedical OfficerIncident commander – oversees entire operationOperations Officer – Oversees the operation and reports to the incident commander.Safety Officer – Oversees safety of entire operation. If the operation is complex or spans a large area add another safety officer.Medical Officer – Oversees pre and post neuro checks on divers and handles any diver or support personnel injury. Takes charge of patient after rescue.
39Dive Team Make-up Five Personnel Primary Diver Safety Diver 3/31/2017Dive Team Make-upFive PersonnelPrimary DiverSafety Diver90% Diver (Tent)TendersIncident Commander (IC)Discuss each. Anyone can make a NO DIVE DECISION, no questions asked.Primary diver:Good patternsTension on lineCommunication with tenderBackup diver: Usually/Possibly best diverFocused on operationCommunication with primary divers tenderFully dressed and ready to work if neededGood lost diver search patternDisciplined90% diver:Ready to become backup diver within 60 secondsFocused on the operationStay warm and readyTenders:Search patternDivers airLine signalsEntry & exitNeuro checksDress and undressObserve divers for mental and physical wellbeing
40Tenders Focused and Keep Divers Focused 3/31/2017TendersFocused and Keep Divers FocusedResponsible for their assigned diver from their pre-dive check to their post-dive check. (Neuros)DressingEquipment ChecksEntry and Exit AssistanceResponsible for their assigned diver from their pre-dive check to their post-dive check.The operations success depends on how well the tenders operate with the divers. The divers are relying on the tenders to make them swim good patterns. The diver can’t tell were they are under the ice. It take team work and being a psychic friend.
413/31/2017TendersMonitoring the Divers Air Consumption (100 PSI per resp. per min)Communication with DiverMonitoring the Divers Search PatternTenders Need Monitored for Protection from ElementsCommunication with diver. Make sure tenders and divers continue to use line signals.Monitoring the divers search pattern. If diver doesn’t keep tension tender informs diver.Monitoring the divers air consumption (100 PSI per per min.Tenders must keep in mind the reason for the operation rescue or recovery
42Support Personnel Diver and Tender Assistance Record Keeping (scribe) 3/31/2017Support PersonnelDiver and Tender AssistanceRecord Keeping (scribe)Equipment HandlingDiver & Tender Assistance. Ex: ScribesRecord Keeping.Equipment Handling.
43Why Perform a Rapid Field Neurological Exam? 3/31/2017Why Perform a Rapid Field Neurological Exam?It documents trouble free dives.It determines the extent of nervous system involvement in the diver who is experiencing a problem.It promotes early treatment by detecting symptoms promptly.It determines how well the diver is responding to treatment (baseline).Discuss the four points on the slideEstablishes baselineDiscuss your own SOP/SOG’s on Neuros
44Rapid Field Neuro Exam Evaluates: 3/31/2017Rapid Field Neuro Exam Evaluates:Mental StatusSensationsMuscle ToneBalance & CoordinationCranial NervesSpeechSightEye MovementFacial Movements/ SensationsHead & Shoulder MovementHearingThe Rapid Field Neuro Exam evaluates the diver’s entire neurological system.
45When to Perform a Rapid Field Neuro Exam 3/31/2017When to Perform a Rapid Field Neuro ExamBefore and After Every DiveWhenever a Diver Experiences Pain, Discomfort, Alterations in Body Sensations or Function, or any Unusual Difficulties After Diving (within 24 hours)During the Treatment & Transportation of an Injured DiverShould be performed prior to the dive whenever possible. Time may be limited based on type of response (rescue vs.. recovery). It should be performed every thirty to forty-five minutes once signs or symptoms are detected. Base line neuro should be done every thirty days.Demonstrate a Nero and have students perform on each other at break.
48Entry Point (Hole) Triangle 10 ft. Sides Ice Auger & Measure Depth 3/31/2017Entry Point (Hole)Triangle 10 ft. SidesIce Auger & Measure DepthSupport Personnel CutTriangle 10 ft. SidesIce auger & measure depthSupport personnel cut, preferably not first set of diversWhy triangle? Easier entry/exit at corners
49Angle your cuts so the ice block slides under easier. 3/31/2017Site PreparationAngle your cuts so the ice block slides under easier.Cut the ice so the surface side of the ice is narrower than the water side of the ice.Push plug away from operations area under ice.Keep tether line from being entanglement hazardIce Block
50Cutting Hole Mark Sides with ¼” to ½” Cuts Continue to Cut Deeper 3/31/2017Cutting HoleMark Sides with ¼” to ½” CutsContinue to Cut DeeperStand Outside of TriangleAuger Hole 1 ft. from Sides Near CornerCut Through to Water on Last CutPerson cutting the hole should be in ice rescue suit.Rope should be tied to the saw.
51Training Site Selection 3/31/2017Snow cleared on circular pathsSnow cleared on paths, arrowsPoint toward the direction of the holeIce HoleDiscuss the essentials of preparing the training siteShovel or blow snow awaySand, dirt or cinder can also be used. Discuss possibilities of material getting into equipment.100 Feet50 Feet20 Feet
53Hole Safety Footing Material Around Hole Stow Plug Under Ice 3/31/2017Hole SafetyFooting Material Around HoleStow Plug Under IceReplace Plug When FinishedMake Dive Site Safe When FinishedFooting around hole:Snow FenceWood PalletsIce CleatsSand or CinderStow Plug away from Ops area.Secure site when finished:ConesBanner TapeBarricadesWarning Lights
54Types of Safety Line Water Rescue Rope Underwater Communication Line 3/31/2017Types of Safety LineWater Rescue RopeUnderwater Communication Line3/8 inch comm. Rope(5,000 lb Tensile Strength)8 mm comm. rope(3,150 lb Tensile Strength)Discuss the safety line options available.3/8 water rescue rope3/8 communication line8mm communications lineLocking carabineers will attach to the chest harness and safety line with an in-line figure 8Review Knots if necessary.
55Securing Safety Line Securing Bar Ice screws Attach Through Ice 3/31/2017Securing Safety LineSecuring BarIce screwsSecuring the opposite end of the divers safety line can be done various ways.Ice screw (Preferred) Attached through iceDrill or cut two holes in the ice and pass the line between them. Tie the line together. Note: the line is doubled.Securing barSafety line secured by attaching to a 2x4 and inserting into a hole cut into the iceAttach Through Ice
56Safety Line Attachment 3/31/2017Safety Line Attachment1. In-Line Figure 8 Knot attaches to divers chest harness with locking carabineer.2. Arm length out, a second In-Line Figure 8 Knot is tied into the line for a hand hold (loop must be directional towards diver).Both ends need to be secured prior to diveTake the time to teach correct riggingHand or chest harness takes tension, not comm line connector.
57Diver Safety Chest harnesses must be worn by each diver. 3/31/2017Diver SafetyChest harnesses must be worn by each diver.Safety line/comm. line must be attached with locking carabineer to diver.Chest harness will be worn.Stress the importance of not using d-rings or plastic buckles etc on BCD (brittle or split metal on BCD rings) could break.
58Line Signals Tender to Diver 1 Tug = Are You Okay? 3/31/2017Line SignalsTender to Diver1 Tug = Are You Okay?2 Tugs = Stop, Change Direction, Take Out Line3 Tugs = Come to the Surface4 Tugs = Stop, Danger, Stay Down, Don’t MoveFor some students this may be new information and for some it may be review.The safety line should be marked in 1 foot increments to measure exact distance from tender to the diver. They may use a Prusik loop or ascender to keep hand dryer.If the line is not marked the tender needs to tie knots to gauge distances, communications line will be more difficult.Review line signals
59Line Signals Diver to Tender 1 Tug = I Am Okay 3/31/2017Line SignalsDiver to Tender1 Tug = I Am Okay2 Tugs = I See Object….Need More Line3 Tugs = I Have Found Object4 Tugs = HELP NOW !!!!
60One Diver Down With a Backup Diver vs.. Two Divers Down 3/31/2017One Diver Down With a Backup Diver vs.. Two Divers DownPrimary DiverCovers More GroundBetter Air ConsumptionEasier to ManageSafety DiverStronger Skilled Diver/Best Problem SolverFully Suited Ready to GoConduct an active class discussion on this topic.Discuss skills vs. safety and skills vs. conditions and equipment vs. conditions as many combinations that students come up with.
61Sweep and Circular Patterns 3/31/2017Sweep and Circular PatternsSweep and Circular patternsThe tender needs to be on the opposite side of the diver and the tender must be conscious of the safety line anchor point so the pattern can be consistent. The tender must strive to keep a straight and taught line to the diver. Remember the ten attributes of a good search pattern. There must be movement of the tender around the edge of the hole to keep the integrity of the pattern and the tender needs to be conscious of the safety line anchor point so the tender does not get fouled up in the line.
62Search Swivel ICE ICE Swivel Discuss pros and cons with class. 3/31/2017SearchICEICEDiscuss pros and cons with class.SwivelSwivel
63Under the Ice Descend to Working Depth Begin Search Pattern 3/31/2017Under the IceDescend to Working DepthBegin Search PatternKeep Light Tension on the Safety LineKeep Hand Contact with the Safety LineAnswer All SignalsDivers communicate with tenders about search patterns.Limit to 50’ lateral feet from hole!Tenders and divers need to know that a divers right or dominate leg can help or hinder a search pattern. Divers need to compensate for dominate leg tendencies.Divers: Watch your search line. Know where it is in reference to your body. When you change directions swim against your search line and then begin pattern.Tenders: Watch divers pattern. It’s different than operating from shore in open water. The search line will get snagged on the ice shelf. Keep moving line to break/keep it free. If diver has no communications, live signals must be maintained. Diver is no answering line signals, pull diver back in to hole or deploy back up diver.
64Under the Ice Buoyancy Control Monitor Air & Time 3/31/2017Under the IceBuoyancy ControlMonitor Air & TimeKnow Your LimitationsKnow When to Terminate the DiveSelf-Discipline is the Key to SAFETYCommon SenseNo PenetrationsSearch Vehicles to arms length only, use caution, many entanglement hazards:seat belts parking brake leverarm rests rear view mirrorsshift lever cargosteering wheelOutside vehicles:mirrors door handleswheels chassisantenna’s wiper armsBreak windows; knife or window punchCaution: Broken glass can cut suits
66Limit Ice Diving Penetration to 50 Lateral Feet!! 3/31/2017Ice DivingLimit Ice Diving Penetration to 50 Lateral Feet!!Limit your ice diving operations to fifty lateral feet. This distance is safer and more easily controlled. If you are not this close to your target, move your entry hole.
67Know Your Emergency Procedures 3/31/2017Under Ice EmergencyKnow Your Emergency ProceduresPicture of lost diver wrapping into rope.
683/31/2017Lost DiverStop, look, wait for one minute and begin safe ascent to surface.Look for light from hole or spokes.Look up for underside of ice.Be vertical and keep one hand on underside of ice, wait for safety diver or safety divers line.Be alert for sight or feel of line.A lost diver should go to the ice and get vertical. This is so a search rope will not miss you.Hand up to protect head from underside of ice.Don’t dump weight belt. This will cause you to make an uncontrolled ascent to surface and hit ice shelf.3 things have to happen for you to come off line:#1) Free from Carabineer#2) Free from hand hold#3) Disconnected from comm line plug in.
693/31/2017Lost DiverStay calm, Relax, Control your breathing, Monitor your SPG. Prepare yourself to remove your full face mask and go to your pony, if available.When your SPG reads 500 PSI in your main tank, Inflate your B/C and Release, Strip and Ditch your weight belt.Stay calm because reacting poorly to the situation will not ensure success. It may ensure failure but not success.Discuss AGA air consumption.Trust your tender and shore support.Safety diver will be on the way, stay focused and don’t panic. Look or feel for back up divers and/or his line.
70Lost DiverWhen safety line is located signal 3 pulls in both directions.Hold onto line, the tender will pull you in.DO NOT attempt to chop hole in ice with your dive knife. This only consumes O2.
71Lost Diver - TendersMark line when you no longer feel diver. This sets an approximate distance out.Notify Incident Commander (IC) and Backup diver.Place marker at the location tender is standing and at location on opposite side of hole in the direction the lost diver was traveling.
723/31/2017Lost Diver - TendersDeploy backup diver 30 degrees to the left & 30 feet past that of the lost divers last known position (30/30 rule).Backup diver swims in a circular search pattern close to the underside of the ice.When backup diver is deployed the 90% diver moves to the backup position.Explain 30/30 rule.
73Lost Diver - Safety Diver 3/31/2017Lost Diver - Safety DiverBackup diver holds rope in right hand.Backup diver ensures good tension .Backup diver swims away from the rope.Backup Diver begins right hand search upon rope becoming taught.Backup divers right arm should be at a 45° to compensate for weaknesses while swimming.Demonstrate visual swim position.
74Lost Diver - Support Assist backup diver into water. Assist returning divers as needed.Everyone should focus on the rescue.ALS Personnel should standby to receive the divers.
78Summary Psychological Effects of Diving Under the Ice 3/31/2017SummaryPsychological Effects of Diving Under the IceEquipment SelectionPersonnelSafetyEmergency ProceduresPsychological effects of diving under the ice.Equipment selectionPersonnelSafetyEmergency procedures.