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Ice Diving Operations © Dive Rescue International, Inc. 2008.

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Presentation on theme: "Ice Diving Operations © Dive Rescue International, Inc. 2008."— Presentation transcript:

1 Ice Diving Operations © Dive Rescue International, Inc. 2008

2 Schedule Day 1 Day 2 Day 3 Morning: Lecture Afternoon: Pool Skills Diving Emergency Procedures Skills Test Written Test

3 Objectives Divers become well versed in the knowledge and skills necessary to safely perform underwater operations below solid ice. Identify knowledge related to command and control. Establish the psychological effects of diving in an overhead environment. Execute the precautions necessary for safe diving in overhead environment. Perform lost diver procedure under the ice.

4 Overview Psychological Aspects Special Equipment Equipment Problems Unique to ICE Diving Environmental Conditions Usually Associated with ICE Diving Emergency Procedures Ice diving Techniques

5 Public Safety Dive operations, statistically is one of the most dangerous jobs performed by public safety personnel. The information and skills provided over the next three days help reduce risks, ultimately it is up to you to continue your education and practical skills.

6 Psychological Effects of Diving Under Solid Ice

7 How Do You Cope With Fear of the Unknown? Trust in your tenders. Trust in your equipment. Trust in your safety diver. Trust in yourself. How do your SOPs come into play with trust?

8 Psychological Effect of Cold Exposure to Cold Water Exposure to Cold Weather

9 Special Equipment Dry Suits Full Face Mask Chest Harness Pony Bottles Surface Supplied Air Ice Rescue Suits Warm Water Warming Tents Ice Auger Chainsaw

10 Equipment Problems Unique to Ice Diving Free-Flows Fogging Hose Connections Freezing Equipment Becoming Brittle

11 Environmental Considerations Unique to Ice Diving Temperature Wind/Wind Chill Wet

12 Temperature Hypothermia Cold Stress Frost Bite Other Effects Of Excessive Cold Rapid Heart Rate Breathing a lot (hyperventilation)

13 Wind Wind Chill Factor Greater wind speed, greater loss of body heat Snow Blindness Inflammation and sensitivity of the eyes caused by ultraviolet rays of the sun reflected by the snow or ice

14 Wet Feet: Water Proof Boots Required Hands: Water Proof Gloves Required

15 You Cant Park That There!

16 Equipment - Divers Dry Suit w/ Power Inflator Full Face Mask w/ Communications B/C w/ Power Inflator SPG (mandatory) Depth Gauge Compass Timing Device

17 Equipment - Divers Underwater Light 80 cu. ft. tank (min) Regulators That Are Environmentally Packed/Sealed Totally Redundant Air Supply Chest Harness w/Locking Carabiner (mandatory)

18 Equipment - Divers Two Cutting Tools Surface Supplied Air Source Would Be Optimal

19 Equipment - Tenders Warm Clothing (Layered) Hood or Hat Face Protection Sun Glasses Insulated & Waterproof Boots Waterproof Gloves Snow Fence/Pallet

20 Equipment - Tenders Ice Rescue Suits for Personnel Cutting Hole Ice Crampons for Personnel on the Ice Communication Equipment Warm Water First Aid Equipment

21 Drown Proof Your Team Members PFDs Within 25 of the Water Maintain Good Footing Around the Hole Crampons Cinders and Sand Snow Fencing Self Rescue Techniques Ice Awls

22 Ice Strength Guidelines Thin IceMaximum Load 2 inchesOne Person Walking 4 inchesOne Person Fishing/ Group Walking 5 inchesSnowmobile 8 inchesCar 12 inchesLight truck P = 50 T2 P = Load Bearing Capacity T = Ice Thickness

23 Review of Ice Which is Strongest?? Clear IceSnow Ice Candled IceFrazil Ice

24 Clear Ice Strongest Ice Formation – Long Hard Freeze

25 Snow Ice Opaque or Milky Porous and Very Weak Formation – Snow Frozen on an Ice Sheet

26 Candled Ice Milky with Crystalline Borders Deteriorated Clear Ice Unable to Support Weight

27 Frazil Ice Forms in Turbulent Water Thin Film that Floats on the Water Surface


29 Overview of Planning Risk vs. Benefit Size up task or reason for diving Evaluate dive site Evaluate environmental conditions Selection of equipment Selection of personnel

30 Planning Job Assignments Fulfillment of Safety Guidelines and SOPs Team Briefing

31 Survey of the Task… Why? Risk vs.. Benefit Training Rescue Recovery

32 Chain of Events Analyze the events and actions that have lead to the need for a Risk/Benefit Analysis. Ask the question is there an event or action in the past that would create risk for this dive?

33 Environmental Considerations Ice Thickness Depth of Water Surface Temperature Wind Speed (Wind Chill) Underwater Visibility Air Under the Ice

34 Open water Wind direction when divers started Wind direction shifted Ice Shelf Moved With the Wind Environmental Considerations?

35 Selection and Preparation of Equipment Annual Inspection Moisture Free Air Dry Regulator Environmental Package Keep Equipment Warm Inhalation from Regulator Above Surface in Extremely Cold Surface Temps… Free Flow

36 Job Assignments Divers Tenders Support Personnel Command Staff ALS Personnel

37 Operational Safety Equipment ICE Personnel Emergency procedures Radio Channel Pre-Dive Briefing Stay Focused Post Dive Briefing

38 Incident Command Organization Designated IC Operations Officer Safety Officer Medical Officer

39 Dive Team Make-up Five Personnel Primary Diver Safety Diver 90% Diver (Tent) Tenders Incident Commander (IC)

40 Tenders Focused and Keep Divers Focused Responsible for their assigned diver from their pre-dive check to their post-dive check. (Neuros) Dressing Equipment Checks Entry and Exit Assistance

41 Tenders Monitoring the Divers Air Consumption (100 PSI per resp. per min) Communication with Diver Monitoring the Divers Search Pattern Tenders Need Monitored for Protection from Elements

42 Support Personnel Diver and Tender Assistance Record Keeping (scribe) Equipment Handling

43 Why Perform a Rapid Field Neurological Exam? It documents trouble free dives. It determines the extent of nervous system involvement in the diver who is experiencing a problem. It promotes early treatment by detecting symptoms promptly. It determines how well the diver is responding to treatment (baseline).

44 Rapid Field Neuro Exam Evaluates: Mental Status Sensations Muscle Tone Balance & Coordination Cranial Nerves Speech Sight Eye Movement Facial Movements/ Sensations Head & Shoulder Movement Hearing

45 When to Perform a Rapid Field Neuro Exam Before and After Every Dive Whenever a Diver Experiences Pain, Discomfort, Alterations in Body Sensations or Function, or any Unusual Difficulties After Diving (within 24 hours) During the Treatment & Transportation of an Injured Diver


47 Dive Site Shore/Ice Based Transportation Entry/Exit Points

48 Entry Point (Hole) Triangle 10 ft. Sides Ice Auger & Measure Depth Support Personnel Cut

49 Angle your cuts so the ice block slides under easier. Ice Block Site Preparation

50 Cutting Hole Mark Sides with ¼ to ½ Cuts Continue to Cut Deeper Stand Outside of Triangle Auger Hole 1 ft. from Sides Near Corner Cut Through to Water on Last Cut

51 100 Feet 50 Feet 20 Feet Ice Hole Snow cleared on circular paths Snow cleared on paths, arrows Point toward the direction of the hole Training Site Selection

52 Look Up!

53 Hole Safety Footing Material Around Hole Stow Plug Under Ice Replace Plug When Finished Make Dive Site Safe When Finished

54 Types of Safety Line Water Rescue Rope Underwater Communication Line 3/8 inch comm. Rope (5,000 lb Tensile Strength) 8 mm comm. rope (3,150 lb Tensile Strength)

55 Attach Through Ice Securing Safety Line Ice screws Securing Bar

56 Safety Line Attachment 1.In-Line Figure 8 Knot attaches to divers chest harness with locking carabineer. 2.Arm length out, a second In-Line Figure 8 Knot is tied into the line for a hand hold (loop must be directional towards diver).

57 Diver Safety Chest harnesses must be worn by each diver. Safety line/comm. line must be attached with locking carabineer to diver.

58 Line Signals Tender to Diver 1 Tug = Are You Okay? 2 Tugs = Stop, Change Direction, Take Out Line 3 Tugs = Come to the Surface 4 Tugs = Stop, Danger, Stay Down, Dont Move

59 Line Signals Diver to Tender 1 Tug = I Am Okay 2 Tugs = I See Object….Need More Line 3 Tugs = I Have Found Object 4 Tugs = HELP NOW !!!!

60 One Diver Down With a Backup Diver vs.. Two Divers Down Primary Diver Covers More Ground Better Air Consumption Easier to Manage Safety Diver Stronger Skilled Diver/Best Problem Solver Fully Suited Ready to Go

61 Sweep and Circular Patterns

62 Search Swivel ICE Swivel

63 Under the Ice Descend to Working Depth Begin Search Pattern Keep Light Tension on the Safety Line Keep Hand Contact with the Safety Line Answer All Signals

64 Under the Ice Buoyancy Control Monitor Air & Time Know Your Limitations Know When to Terminate the Dive Self-Discipline is the Key to SAFETY

65 Lateral Distance Formula S = D 2 + L 2 S = Length of Line D = Depth L = Lateral Distance S D L

66 Limit Ice Diving Penetration to 50 Lateral Feet!! Ice Diving

67 Under Ice Emergency Know Your Emergency Procedures

68 Lost Diver Stop, look, wait for one minute and begin safe ascent to surface. Look for light from hole or spokes. Look up for underside of ice. Be vertical and keep one hand on underside of ice, wait for safety diver or safety divers line. Be alert for sight or feel of line.

69 Lost Diver Stay calm, Relax, Control your breathing, Monitor your SPG. Prepare yourself to remove your full face mask and go to your pony, if available. When your SPG reads 500 PSI in your main tank, Inflate your B/C and Release, Strip and Ditch your weight belt.

70 Lost Diver When safety line is located signal 3 pulls in both directions. Hold onto line, the tender will pull you in. DO NOT attempt to chop hole in ice with your dive knife. This only consumes O2.

71 Lost Diver - Tenders Mark line when you no longer feel diver. This sets an approximate distance out. Notify Incident Commander (IC) and Backup diver. Place marker at the location tender is standing and at location on opposite side of hole in the direction the lost diver was traveling.

72 Lost Diver - Tenders Deploy backup diver 30 degrees to the left & 30 feet past that of the lost divers last known position (30/30 rule). Backup diver swims in a circular search pattern close to the underside of the ice. When backup diver is deployed the 90% diver moves to the backup position.

73 Lost Diver - Safety Diver Backup diver holds rope in right hand. Backup diver ensures good tension. Backup diver swims away from the rope. Backup Diver begins right hand search upon rope becoming taught. Backup divers right arm should be at a 45° to compensate for weaknesses while swimming.

74 Lost Diver - Support Assist backup diver into water. Assist returning divers as needed. Everyone should focus on the rescue. ALS Personnel should standby to receive the divers.

75 Lost Diver - 90% Divers Role

76 Dont Become a Statistic!

77 Risk / Benefit

78 Summary Psychological Effects of Diving Under the Ice Equipment Selection Personnel Safety Emergency Procedures

79 Have Fun and Be SAFE!! Questions?

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