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AP World Review May 3, 2006 afternoon. Who takes the test s 21,000+ students took the test in 2002. s This was the most popular first-year exam in the.

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Presentation on theme: "AP World Review May 3, 2006 afternoon. Who takes the test s 21,000+ students took the test in 2002. s This was the most popular first-year exam in the."— Presentation transcript:

1 AP World Review May 3, 2006 afternoon

2 Who takes the test s 21,000+ students took the test in s This was the most popular first-year exam in the AP Program's history. s 10% 5 s 17% 4 s 29% 3 s 25% 2 s 19% 1 s ,000 students took the exam

3 2004 scores 54.9 % made 3 or higher 55, , , , , Total47,558Ave. 2.71

4 What do the questions look like s The questions fall into 6 basic categories, which are as follows: s Identification (35-40% of the test) - simply test whether you know a fact, or facts. s Analytical (20-25% of the test) - makes you think about relationships, see connections, place in order. s Quotation Based (10% or less of the test) - match the quote with the appropriate person. s Image Interpretation (10% or less of the test) - determine images relevance, purpose, or meaning. s Map Based Questions (10% or less of the test) - identify what a map shows, or interpret it's purpose. s Graph & Chart Interpretation (10% or less of the test) - interpret answer from data given in chart form.

5 Six Themes s The impact of interaction among major societies. –Such as Trade, International Exchange, War, and Diplomacy s The Relationship of Change and Continuity across the periods of World History s Impact of Technology and Demography on People and the Environment; –Including Population change, Manufacturing, Agriculture, etc. s Systems of Organization and Gender Structure s Cultural and Intellectual Development and Interactions among Societies s Change over time in functions and structures of Political States

6 Test Format s Exam last 3 Hours and 5 Minutes s 55 Minutes for 70 Multiple Choice Questions s 2 hours for essays –50 Minutes for Document Based Question (10 minutes for Reading and Evaluating Documents) –40 Minutes for Change Over Time Essay –40 Minutes for Comparative Essay Question s Time Frames –Prehistory to 600 C.E: 19-20% of Questions –600 C.E-1450 C.E: 22 % of Questions –1450 C.E C.E: 19-20% of Questions –1750 C.E C.E: 19-20% of Questions –1914-Present: 19-20% of Questions

7 Grading s 70 Multiple Choice Questions = 1/2 Score s Document Based Question = 16.66% s Change Over Time Essay = 16.66% s Comparative Essay = 16.66% s Essays Graded on Scale of 0 to 9 –Basic score (7) achieved before expanded score points (2) considered

8 Measuring time in prehistoric era once man appears s Main detriments used to mark basic periods in the development of prehistoric peoples s Changes in stone age technology s (Neolithic, Paleolithic, etc..) s evolutionary stages of species

9 Building Blocks of Civilization s What is a Civilization? –Economic System –Political Organization –Moral Code (Religion) –Written Language and Intellectual Tradition –Division of labor

10 Others ways to tell if it is a civilization s primary measurement is surplus –Something above the subsistence level –Indicators of more time s other characteristics of civilization include –Writing –Cities –established states.

11 Issues of Civilization vrs. Cultures s What advantages does an agriculturally based society have over a hunter/gatherer based society? –The greatest advantage is reliable food supply, and hence, the capacity to support larger populations. Agriculture produces surpluses, and those and agriculture's sedentary nature, open the door to specialization and a more elaborate culture, etc. s Why is the development of writing important in the history of the river valley civilizations? –Writing is essential for record keeping, bureaucracy, commerce, and accumulating knowledge; it also makes possible more varied cultural forms. Writing also led to new social divisions based on selective literacy. s Compared to noncivilized societies, what are the major drawbacks of civilization? –Often have inequality in social structure and gender as well as disease and war.

12 Early Man s Beginnings of Humans –Hominids: 3 to 4 million years on earth –Hominids were primates –Earliest Hominids called Australopithecine –Bipeds s Other Types of Early Man –Homo Habilis –Homo Erectus –Homo Sapiens

13 Stone Age s Paleolithic Age (Old Stone Age) –Tools were used –Simple Huts –Fire s Hunter Gatherer Societies –Family or Clan Groupings –Political Organizations Begin –Art and Music also practiced s Agricultural Revolution: Neolithic Revolution –Occurred around end of Great Ice Age –Rapid Population Growth –Need for Change of Food Supply –New Skills Needed s Pastoralism and Agriculture –Begins with Domestication of Plants and Animals

14 Results of Agricultural Revolution s Many Diversified Crops developed s Development of Communities and Villages –Not Based on family ties –Lead to formation of Cities s Early Religions form around Harvest and Planting Seasons s Specialization of Labor –Improved Tools –Development of Social Classes

15 Neolithic Revolution s What was it? –A period that saw the development of varied, specialized tools and accompanied the introduction of agriculture. s Initial results –It opened the potential for agriculture and the resultant differentiations with hunting and gathering. s Impact –People settled down and cities developed which led to complex systems developing and the change from societies to civilizations

16 PreHistory History s Presence of a written language s Writing is essential for record keeping, bureaucracy, commerce, and accumulating knowledge; s it makes possible more varied cultural forms. s Writing also led to new social divisions based on selective literacy. –Scribes –Scholarly gentry s Dark Age –Art of writing has developed and been lost

17 River Valley Civilizations s Mesopotamia (between two rivers) –Tigris and Euphrates River Valley Flooding unpredictable in both time and force –Fertile Crescent –Written Language: Cuneiform –Epic of Gilgamesh –Hammurabi’s Code s Egypt –Nile River valley: Upper and Lower Egypt –Inundation: regular flooding Schedule –Monarchy: Pharaoh and Small class of Priests –Duality: Complex Religion, Mummification Book of the Dead –Many great Inventions and Advances

18 Comparison of Egypt and Meso s Common features include writing, surplus, cities, and established governments; –Cuneiform –Hieroglyphics –Pyramids only different types (steppe dev. Into ziggurats) s Differences –cultural tone –cultural features like ideas of death –artistic forms –literary emphases –government organization and stability Egypt placed more emphasis on monarchy and political stability and held larger territories for longer periods while Fertile Crescent had city-states that constantly vied for control of the area and form empires (Sumerians, Assyrians, Akkadians, Chaldeons, Babylonians, etc… –mobilization of labor Stability vs. Instability Fragmentation which required warlike technology and different issues of control

19 River Valley Civilizations s Indus Valley –Indus and Ganges Rivers –Reason for decline not known –Highly unified and organized government –Artistic –Linear B s China –Yellow River valley –Shang China: first dynasty –Monarchy –Bronze work, silk making, pottery, jade –Zhou Dynasty: Many Advancements Mandate of heaven

20 Political structure tied to social order and culture by Confucianism s Confucianism emphasized order, hierarchy, and deference, including specific injunctions to obey the emperor. s Bureaucracy aimed to alleviate political instability, difficulties of centrally controlling outlying provinces, and related competition among landed aristocrats for power and influence. s Daoism also supports order by “one way or the way” although it didn’t support the emperor

21 Throughout pendulum changes in level and type of Confucianism s Qin dynasty outlawed Confucianism –Legalism encouraged actions based on law and furthered the totalitarian state Actually began to develop in the Zhou dynasty but was used by Shih Huang Di to unite the region under his Qin dynasty –Different than Confucianism which was based on ethics and right behavior and “rites” or ceremonies which promote the social and political order s Adopted as state religion under Wu Di of Han Dynasty s Song Dynasty developed Neoconfucianism

22 Ancient Chinese Dynasties I. Early (Neolithic, then River Valley, Huang He) A. Yangshau Bce B. Longshan Bce II. Bronze Age ( BC) A. Shang Dynasty ( bce) B. Chou (Zhou) ( bce) 1. Early Chou (Zhou) III. Classical Age (600 BC ad) A. Late Chou (Zhou) ( bce) 1. Confucius B. Chin (First Emperor) ( bce) (Shi hwang di) 1. First Called China C. Han (paper) (202 BC- 220 ad) % of Chinese consider themselves Han still today 2. Pax Sinica a. Wu Di (140 BC - 87 bce) IV. Age of Division ( ad) A. Three Kingdoms B. Northern and Southern (Wui, Sui) V. Medieval Age ( ad) A. Tang ( ad) B. Sung ( ad) VI. Yuan Dynasty or Mongol Age ( ad)

23 Impact s It appears that the impact of the Indus is less than the Huang He river-valley civilizations, because China was much less disrupted, and thus evidenced more continuities. s What evidence could you use to show that Hwang He river valley had greater impact on the development of China than did the Indus River Valley (Mohenjo-daro and Harappa)

24 Southwestern Asia Civilizations s Persians –Created one of the largest empires on world history :from Turkey to Lybia –Cyrus the Great was first king, Darius the Great –Advanced Postal System, Roads, Single Currency, and Decentralized Government –Zoroastrianism: Primary Religion monotheistic –Fell to Alexander the Great s Phoenicians –Syria and Lebanon –Advanced Export Economy –Skilled Traders –Established Carthage –First Alphabet

25 Southwestern Asia Civilizations s Lydians –Coined money s Hebrews –Ethical monotheism –Monotheism represented a significant departure from polytheism in its concept of ethics and ideas of justice and in the extent to which the world was viewed as orderly. –Diaspora s Assyrians s Introduction of iron weapons s Babylonians – –Significant law code Code of Hamurabi

26 MesoAmerica s Did not have the large animals –Diseases that they carried were not present but made peoples of Mesoamerica vulnerable to disease when they connected to the Europeans in the second millennium s Archaic period includes beginning of agricultural experimentation s Olmec’s are the first preclassical civilization (ca BCE) –site is San Lorenzo s Around La Venta about 35 BCE system of writing is present s About 100 CE, at Teotihuacán, the Pyramids of the Sun and Moon and the Avenue of the Dead are erected at the "center of the universe" as monuments to the gods of creation s Early Myans

27 Environmental determinism s Relationship between culture of a civilization, success and stability s How does the culture react to the environment or environmental change s Technology s Movement of peoples into and out of the area s Crossroads vs. isolation

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