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CLIL PRINCIPLES, STRATEGIES AND RESOURCES FOR SECONDARY TEACHERS Diana Foran Storer November 7, 2012.

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Presentation on theme: "CLIL PRINCIPLES, STRATEGIES AND RESOURCES FOR SECONDARY TEACHERS Diana Foran Storer November 7, 2012."— Presentation transcript:

1 CLIL PRINCIPLES, STRATEGIES AND RESOURCES FOR SECONDARY TEACHERS Diana Foran Storer November 7, 2012

2 Day 1: History and Rationale of CLIL   Understand the rationale of CLIL   Get our definitions straight: Buzz Words   Look at teacher characteristics for CLIL   Think about what it means to be bilingual   Talk about what’s in a CLIL lesson   Reflect on who we are, what we do, why we do it, and HOW we do it

3 Course Plan (flexible!)   Nov 7: Intro: gossip; History and Rationale of CLIL   Nov. 12: The CLIL lesson Plan (guest speaker Michele Guerrini)   Nov. 19: Do’s of a CLIL teacher   Nov. 21: Effective Teaching-Effective Learning   Nov. 26: Formative Assessment   Nov. 28: Developing Literacy Skills in EFL Learners/ prep time for presentations   Dec. 3: Sample lesson presentation Daily trouble shooting, questions/answers/suggestions

4 HISTORY and RATIONALE for CLIL   Traditional LT methodology ? What has gone wrong?   EU diversity= need for communication; job mobility; globalization; ERASMUS; student/teacher exchanges   EU directive: MT + 2

5 HISTORY and RATIONALE for CLIL   The European Commission and Spain since the 1990s collaborative bilingual programs MEC / British Council   Comunidad de Madrid since 2004 : : 297 colegios, 80 institutos   Challenges? TRAINING TEACHERS, developing materials, designing curriculum frameworks to improve the quality of language and content education; TEA

6 Let’s work on Definitions Buzz Words   Break into groups.   Match the terms / names with the definitions / theories.   Be prepared to be questioned!

7 ? Questions ?  What does CLIL stand for?  Who are the “gurus” ?  What methodology?  How does CLIL benefit learners?  Content and Language Intergrated Learning  David Marsh, Do Coyle; Carmen Pérez-Vidal, Carmen Muñoz  Content subjects taught in and through a foreign language  Learning is improved through increased motivation: (Wolff, 2004)  Learning is improved through increased motivation: Learners are more successful and more motivated than those in traditional content subject classrooms (Wolff, 2004)

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9 CLIL requires specific professional skills and competencies. Discuss with your partners. I agree I disagree   A high level of fluency is required in the target language.   Knowledge of language learning theory provides a basis for FLT pedagogy.   Teachers adjust their linguistic skills (in the L2) to the complexity of the subject matter.   Teachers adjust to different learning styles, and linguistic /cultural backgrounds.

10 CLIL requires specific professional skills and competencies  1.  1. Language/communication: → Sufficient target language (L2) knowledge and pragmatic skill → Sufficient knowledge of the L1   2. Theory: First - Second Language Acquisition. → Comprehension of the differences and similarities, phases of learning and production

11 CLIL requires specific professional skills and competencies  3. Methodology 1. Ability to identify linguistic difficulties 2. Enhance the use of socially oriented language (BICS) 3. Use communcation/interaction methods that faciltiate understanding of meaning 4. Use strategies for error correction and modeling good language use 5. Use dual-focused activities simultaneously for content and language.

12 CLIL requires specific professional skills and competencies   4. The Learning Environment: Ability to use different classroom settings in order to provide acquisition-rich learning opportunities Ability to work with learners with diverse linguistic/cultural backgrounds Diverse strategies for peer interaction, group/pair work, learner autonomy Knowledge of information and communication technology available on CLIL learning environment.

13 CLIL requires specific professional skills and competencies   5. Materials Development Ability to adopt, adapt, and exploit materials considering semantic, textual, syntactic, vocabulary features Ability to select authentic, real-life materials from various media and utilize these in an integrated framework.

14 CLIL requires specific professional skills and competencies   6. Interdisciplinary Approaches Ability to identify conceptual relations between different subjects; interlink, make learning relevant, easier, effective Ability to encourage learners to develop self- confidence, self-esteem, and “thirst for learning”.

15 CLIL requires specific professional skills and competencies   Assessment Ability to develop and implement evaluation and assessment tools and strategies that reflect content and language learning Understanding that language production fluency prevails over strict grammatical accuracy

16 Using language demands that teachers systematically plan for, teach, monitor and evaluate: Language of learning: linked to an analysis of content; thematic, syllabus demands; grammar, vocabulary, structures, functions Language for learning: builds up learner repertoire linked to meta-cognitive skills ; thinking in real contexts for the learners Language through learning emergent knowledge building, progressive skill development, cognitive development, BICS/CALP

17 Basic Interpersonal Communication Skills (BICS) J. Cummins  is the kind of language used in face-to-face communication. It is language needed for social interaction. This is sometimes called playground language, everyday language, social language, or surface fluency. It is the language of everyday communicative contexts.  Basic Interpersonal Communication Skills is the kind of language used in face-to-face communication. It is language needed for social interaction. This is sometimes called playground language, everyday language, social language, or surface fluency. It is the language of everyday communicative contexts.   Example: –Social greetings such as “hello”, “goodbye” and “thank you.”

18 Cognitive Academic Language Proficiency (CALP)   Language proficiency associated with schooling, and the abstract language abilities required for academic work. A more complex, conceptual, linguistic ability that includes analysis, synthesis and evaluation.   Influenced by prior schooling and experience using complex language.   Reading achievement in English is more dependent on reading achievement in their native language than it is on relative oral proficiency in English.   Amount of exposure and practice in the second language

19 BICS or CALP? __ Cultural/linguistic knowledge is often needed to comprehend L2 fully. __ Understanding by observing others’ reactions. __ There is less face-to-face interaction. __ Observing pictures, concrete objects, and other contextual cues which are present. __ Language used is often abstract. __ Literacy demands are high (narrative and expository text and textbooks are written beyond the language proficiency of the students). __ Observing speakers’ non- verbal behavior (gestures, facial expressions and eye actions). __ Non-verbal clues are absent __ Asking for statements to be repeated, and/or clarified. __ Using voice cues such as phrasing, intonations, and stress.

20 CONTEXT-EMBEDDED LANGUAGE : CONTEXT-REDUCED LANGUAGE

21 What does it mean to be bilingual? What is the goal of CLIL?   Monolingual; Semi- lingual; passive   Compound bilingual; fossilization   Ambi-bilingual   Simultaneous   Sequential   Balanced bilingual   Coordinate bilingual   Subtractive   Additive   FUNCTIONAL BILINGUAL

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23 Second Language Acquisition   In an ideal situation, it takes 5-7 years for students in a quality bilingual program to become relatively academically proficient in English.   Learners acquire best when they create, discover and construct their own meanings.   Language is a means not an end, and when learners are interested in a topic, they will be motivated to acquire language to communicate.

24 Second Language Acquisition (cont )   Semantic fluency precedes grammatical accuracy and errors are a natural part of language learning.   Learners develop fluency in English by using English to communicate for a variety of purposes.   Reading is essential for developing academic English skills.

25 LANGUAGE ACQUISITION Language Development Cognitive Development Academic Development Social and Cultural Processes

26 What’s different about CLIL lessons? Content and Language Goals   Knowledge of the language becomes the means of learning content. Science: Content- identify the steps in the life cycle of a frog Language – Use signal words to describe the life cycle Social Studies : Content-Identify the causes of global warming Language- Explain the meaning of “the greenhouse effect” to your partner and summarize the meaning in writing

27 Content and Language Goals   Language Arts: Content- Describe how a character changes in a story Language- Use sensory words to give your partners a “real” picture of the character.   Technology: Content- Describe how a pulley works Language- Use specific vocabulary in writing the “how – to” summary

28 HOW CLIL WORKS   Fluency is more important than accuracy.   Learners interested in a topic are motivated to acquire language to communicate.   It is the subject matter which determines the language needed to learn.   Listening comprehension is achieved through input and improved through output.

29 Krashen’s Comprehensible Input ⇨ Comprehensible Output   Swain’s Output Hypothesis: This refers to the opportunities provided to the learners to engage in meaningful conversation. Input that is just a level above what the learner knows (“one step beyond”) is made comprehensible by context paralinguistic clues, speech modification, and building on prior knowledge. Output produced by learners in collaborative tasks needs feedback, interaction, meaningful negotiation.

30 IN A CLIL LESSON, ALL FOUR LANGUAGE SKILLS SHOULD BE COMBINED: , a normal input activity is vital for language learning  Listening, a normal input activity is vital for language learning , using authentic, meaningful material, as the major content source  Reading, using authentic, meaningful material, as the major content source , primarily focuses on fluency: accuracy is seen as secondary  Speaking, primarily focuses on fluency: accuracy is seen as secondary  is a series of lexical activities through which grammar is recycled  Writing is a series of lexical activities through which grammar is recycled  Integrate both and language skills.  Integrate both receptive and productive language skills.

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32 What have we just done?...   Introduced CTIF course; introduced ourselves!   Practiced information gathering skills: question formation (G.O.S.S.I.P. activity)   Touched on CLIL history and rationale   Checked our knowledge of basic CLIL terminology   Looked at specific professional skills for CLIL teachers   Discussed BICS, CALP, bilingualism, Second Language Acquisition, Input and Output Hypotheses   HOMEWORK: CD with pdfs; Popular Opinions; CLIL Essentials; Stages of Second Language Acquisition; Learning Styles Survey

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