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Reasonable Suspicion Education

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Presentation on theme: "Reasonable Suspicion Education"— Presentation transcript:

1 Reasonable Suspicion Education
Oregon Department of Corrections BIO-MED Testing Service Inc. Salem, Oregon (503)

2 Oregon D.O.C. Presentation by DOC Personnel
Specific Requirements and SOP

3 The role of the Third-Party Administrator (TPA)
Stand in the shoes of the employer Independent quality assurance Defensibility of all aspects of testing Expert help available 24/7 Help with Policy, Education, Hearings, Arbitration- neutrality Help protect employee rights to fair, accurate tests

4 Why Are We Here? Objective What is Reasonable Suspicion Testing?
Drug and Alcohol Effects Testing Processes and Procedures Understanding DOC Policy and Practices Myths and misconceptions Tampering Issues

5 Reasonable Suspicion Testing
NOT PROBABLE CAUSE TESTING Testing based upon observable signs and symptoms of possible drug/alcohol use Testing conducted during a time when employee exhibiting S/S No second hand reports, no voluntary collection Determinations made only by 2 trained supervisors who concur

6 Let’s Look at the Drugs Marijuana Cocaine
Amphetamines/ Methamphetamines Opiate Phencyclidine Alcohol

7 Drug Detection Times Marijuana 15-120 days Cocaine 1-3 days
Amphetamines/ meth days Opiates days Phencyclidine days Alcohol drink/ hour

8 Physical Signs and Symptoms ALCOHOL
Consumption and Excretion 1 Drink= 1 beer, 1 mixed drink, 1 glass wine all equal same ethanol amount 0.02% Average Male under 50 can process 1 drink (0.02) per hour 2 beers in 1 hour before work= % Prohibited level in your workplace is 0.02% DOT prohibited level is 0.02% Can be arrested in your personal car for “driving under the influence” at if you show impairment. Driving Intoxicated is 0.08 or higher in Oregon

9 Physical Signs and Symptoms ALCOHOL
BrAC of 0.10% Diminished vision, decreased reaction time, loss of judgment and mental impairment BrAC of 0.15% Confused, unsteady movements, difficult balance and slurred speech

10 Physical Signs and Symptoms ALCOHOL (continued)
BrAC of 0.25% or higher Nearing impaired consciousness May not respond BrAC of 0.40% or higher Death may occur

11 Physical Signs and Symptoms ALCOHOL (continued)
Speech Indicators Abnormal or Slurred – Does the speech pattern make sense? Slowed or exaggerated speech- Does it take a long time to answer a simple question? Nonsensical Speech Patterns- Is the speech coherent and understandable?

12 Physical Signs and Symptoms ALCOHOL (continued)
General Awareness Short attention span Impaired- overestimates distance and underestimates speed Clumsiness Distorted sense of time Exaggerated sense of physical capabilities

13 Conditions that Mimic Alcohol Misuse
Diabetes Epilepsy Trauma Brain Diseases or tumors Parkinson’s Disease Other neurological disorders Allergic reaction to prescriptions

14 Physical Signs and Symptoms DRUGS
Marijuana Reddened Eyes (use of eye drops) Slowed Speech Distinctive Odor on clothes Lackadaisical, “I don’t care” attitude Chronic fatigue and lack of motivation Irritating cough, chronic sore throat

15 Physical Signs and Symptoms DRUGS (continued)
Marijuana- Mental Functioning Delayed decision making Diminished concentration Apathy Impaired signal detection- ability to detect a flash of light Impaired tracking- ability to follow moving objects with eyes Distortions in time estimation Paranoia “Acute Brain Syndrome” memory, sleep, cognitive

16 Physical Signs and Symptoms DRUGS (continued)
Cocaine Financial problems- going down in price Frequent- extended absences Increased physical activity and fatigue Isolation and withdrawal from friends and routine activities Secretive behaviors- non-business visitors, phone calls… Unusual defensiveness, anxiety and agitation Wide mood swings Runny or irritated nose Difficulty in concentration

17 Physical Signs and Symptoms DRUGS
Cocaine….. Dilated pupils and visual impairment Restlessness and aggressive behavior Formication- (feeling of bugs on skin) High Blood pressure, heart palpations, irregular rhythm Hallucinations

18 Physical Signs and Symptoms DRUGS
Opiates Narcotic Drugs- Heroin, Demerol, Methadone, Morphine, Codeine, Oxycotine, Vicodin…. Signs and Symptoms Mood changes Impaired mental functioning and alertness Constricted pupils Depression and apathy Impaired coordination Insomnia, fatigue and drowsiness Nausea, vomiting and constipation

19 Physical Signs and Symptoms DRUGS
Amphetamines Hyperexcitability, restlessness Loss of appetite Dilated pupils Increased heart rate and blood pressure Heart palpitations and irregular beats Profuse sweating Rapid respiration Confusion, panic Talkativeness Speech disturbances

20 Self Reporting The DOC strongly encourages self-reporting of drug or alcohol problems If employee is asked for a Reasonable Suspicion test- it is too late for “self-reporting” The request for help must be prior to a serious performance problem or accident

21 What Events Can Trigger Reasonable Suspicion?
Deteriorating job performance Conflicts with others Change in appearance or behavior Change in hygiene practices

22 Let’s Review the Checklist
Observable Signs and Symptoms Short-term indicators Recent serious event Long-term indicators Patterns of behavior developed over time

23 If You Have Reasonable Suspicion, What’s Next?
Know what the employee is doing at the time- is it safe? Consult with another trained supervisor Contact your Human Resources Manager Arrange transportation to test site Review DOC Drug Policy and Collective Bargaining Agreement Have BIO-MED Collection Site List ready Document basic facts or circumstances

24 Approaching the Employee
Remember confidentiality and privacy ASK if they want union steward present- no delay Tell employee this is to determine if safe to work; Reasonable suspicion test is requested based upon observable signs and symptoms; use the checklist! Explain DOC procedure, policy and process Transport ASAP

25 What to Expect... D don’t E even N know I i A am L lying

26 Other Considerations If after hours/weekends- check collection site list to determine if after-hours services listed. If not, CALL BIO-MED IMMEDIATELY TO SET UP A COLLECTION NEVER USE A NON-APPROVED CLINIC! Do not allow a collection site to make you wait for a test “Shy Bladder” allow 3-hours to void In uniform, consider using side door of clinic

27 What to Document Employee explanation for signs and symptoms
Employee attitude and behavior at interview Times and sequence of events Who was present and why That the testing process and procedure was explained and policy reviewed If refusal, informed of consequences If refusal, they should not drive car off DOC property

28 General Guidelines Do not let the employee out of sight
Try not to let employee use restroom! Expect the unexpected Remember confidentiality Breathalyzer for alcohol testing?! Don’t argue- you can’t win

29 What if… The employee is being treated at a hospital and you believe the accident may have been caused by drug/alcohol use? If at authorized Collection Site ask them to conduct a Drug/Alcohol test If at another non-authorized facility, call BIO-MED to arrange a sample collection If hospital refuses, CALL BIO-MED IMMEDIATELY!

30 Test Result Reporting ONLY THE APPROVED D.E.R. (Designated Employer Representative) IS AUTHORIZED TO RECEIVE ALL RESULTS! Drug test results automatically go from BIO-MED to DER Breath test results must be faxed to Carla Perkins in HR (DOC’s DER) at DO NOT ALLOW TECHNICIAN TO GIVE YOU THE BREATH TEST RESULTS In emergency- Technician can call BIO-MED

31 Transporting Employee Home
Be safe Best if 2 supervisors transport Expect lots of stories May be confrontational- Your safety is 1st! May admit a drug or alcohol problem If so, don’t make any assurances, it may be too late to “self-report.” Proceed with test regardless

32 When Back at Your Office
Assure HR is notified ASAP Prepare full report including all check sheets and company required documentation; Document employee behavior to and from test site as well as employee admissions; Assure you document that employee was safely escorted home Make sure BOTH supervisors have prepared documentation (check sheets etc.)

33 Common Supervisor Errors
Not following Policy and Collective Bargining Agreement Using second-hand reports for R/S Allowing employee to leave before test complete Micromanagement- “Killing em with kindness” Confidentiality Breech- Random Allowing a urine or blood alcohol test Allowing unauthorized technician/clinic to perform test

34 What About Prescriptions?
Employee should not be asked to disclose medications by you or at the collection site! As long as the employee has a current valid prescription for a medication there’s nothing to worry about!

35 Testing Process To SAMHSA Certified Lab To Certifying Scientist
To Certified Medical Review Officer MRO calls employee at home to verify To Certified Substance Abuse Program Administrator To DOC DER

36 The Effects of Drugs over time
Nov July Aug Mar May Apr June Jan 1989 This is a series of arrest photographs of the same individual taken over the course of 10 years. Some of the photos were taken at closer time intervals than others. Note the radical difference between photos 6 & 7, taken less than 2 years apart. Unfortunately, we do not have any photos prior to the first arrest to see the initial changes. http//

37 4 Issues that will BITE you

38 Bite You Lesson #1 Check out an employee “allegation” before taking it to the bank! The Collector put some powdered substance in my sample My sample got mixed up at the lab so the test was cancelled I got my own test result the same day and it was negative

39 Bite You Lesson #2 Not Protecting Employee Identifiable Information from Identity Theft Do not require employees to be tested using their Social Security Number- Should use other appropriate Identification Number such as employer ID or other unique number

40 Bite You Lesson #3 Roe V. Cheyenne Mountain Conference Resort (1997)
Policy required disclosure of prescription medications Considered a “medical evaluation” Violated A.D.A. Rule as “disability related” EEOC joined in suit Complainant then filed 2 additional state cases

41 Appellate Ct of ILL March 2006
Bite You Lesson #4 Wigginton v White Appellate Ct of ILL March 2006 Lynnanne Wigginton’s Story….School Bus driver 24-years She told Supervisor she never used, Supervisor allowed her to re-test at clinic a few days later She brought in all her previous neg. test results “Drug Test Unreliable”- reinstated with damages

42 Drug Testing Bite You Avoidance
Consistent practices and procedures Remember Drug/Alcohol testing information is federally protected & highly confidential, especially for public employees Engage H.R. in all disciplinary decisions- Don’t become a Dog Bite Casualty

43 Medical Marijuana If employee states they have a Medical Marijuana card, still conduct test CALL H.R. FAST when any DOC employee reports use of Medical Marijuana! Do not engage in a conversation with employee/applicant on this topic

44 Myths and Misconceptions
Second-hand exposure Poppy seeds, food substances OTC medications, including alcohol Herbal remedies -flushing “Trace amounts”

45 Adulteration and Substitution Issues
7% of GNC sales- adulteration products Urineaid, urineluck, wizzies, fizzies klear, turboclean, The urinator, freeze-dried urine, human urine catheterized What’s next?








53 Questions and Answers

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