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Policing in Scotland and Human Rights Dr Genevieve Lennon School of Law, University of Dundee.

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Presentation on theme: "Policing in Scotland and Human Rights Dr Genevieve Lennon School of Law, University of Dundee."— Presentation transcript:

1 Policing in Scotland and Human Rights Dr Genevieve Lennon School of Law, University of Dundee

2 Outline 1.Scottish criminal court structure in relation to human rights 2.Cadder and the right to legal advice under Article 6 3.Fraser and the comparison between the right to a fair trial under Article 6 and a ‘miscarriage of justice’ under the Criminal Procedure (Scotland) Act In defence of guilty people walking free: why the integrity of the criminal process is crucial to policing

3 Scottish criminal court structure in relation to human rights

4 Scotland has a separate legal system and courts Scotland Act 1998: all devolution issues are reserved matters All appeals on devolution issues go, ultimately, to the Supreme Court

5 Controversy over the Fraser case Alex Salmond: ‘The increasing involvement of the UK Supreme Court in second guessing Scotland's highest criminal court of appeal is totally unsatisfactory’ Independent Review Group Scottish Parliament has no competence to alter Scotland Act or Human Rights Act 1998 Representativeness of ECtHR vs. Supreme Court?

6 Facts of Cadder Appellant detained and questioned under caution; not offered access to lawyer Convicted; prosecution relied on statements made when under caution Appealed on basis of infringement of Art 6

7 (Some of the) Differences between Criminal Procedure in Scotland and the rest of the UK Length of pre- charge detention (6 hrs vs. 96 hrs) Corroboration Pre-charge access to a lawyer

8 The Right to Legal Advice under Art. 6 Not absolute 2009 Crown Court: 70% guilty plea 45% of detainees request legal advice (Kemp & Blamer 2011) 49% of terrorist suspects request legal advice (Brown 1993)

9 Facts of Fraser Convicted of murdering his wife Prosecution relied on evidence regarding wife’s rings Fraser tried to add ground of appeal of infringement of Art.6 on basis of non- disclosure – refused Leave to appeal to SC refused but granted by SC

10 Fraser in the Supreme Court Cameron test (Criminal Procedure (Scotland) Act 1995, s.106(3)): fresh evidence McInnes test (Article 6: non disclosure)

11 Article 6: the right to a fair trial Right to a fair and public hearing within a reasonable time by an independent and impartial tribunal established by law Factual guilt and procedural fairness Holistic approach to ‘trial’ – from pre-charge detention to conviction Defects can be cured by the court

12 Criminal Procedure (Scotland) Act 1995, s.106(3) Alleged miscarriage of justice – Fresh evidence – Unreasonable verdict Factual guilt and procedural fairness, but emphasis on former England: Criminal Appeal Act 1995, s.2: ‘if conviction is unsafe’

13 In defence of guilty people walking free (sometimes): why the integrity of the criminal process is crucial to policing The Royal Commission on Criminal Procedure (1981): have regard ‘both to the interests of the community in bringing offenders to justice and to the rights and liberties of persons suspected of crime’

14 Crime Control vs Due Process Due Process: Legitimacy of the system is key Formality Lack of finality Crime Control: high proportion of convictions Speed Informality Finality

15 Crime Control Due Process Scotland? – Varies over time; depends on the particular aspect of the CJS – Due process lens – Legitimacy of system as a whole is of central importance

16 R v Mullen [2000] QB 520 Mullen convicted of conspiracy to cause explosions Kidnapped from Zimbabwe Court of Appeal allowed appeal based on legitimacy argument

17 Conclusion Allegations of human rights infringements in trial raise devolution issues and will be heard (ultimately) by the Supreme Court Gap in practice if not law between criminal appeals procedure in Scotland and Article 6, ECHR Integrity of criminal process as a whole is fundamental to our CJS

18 Questions? Comments? Dr Genevieve Lennon School of Law, University of Dundee


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