2Learning outcomes What is an optimum population? What is under-population?What is over-population?Theories behind population and food supplyExamples of a MEDC and a LEDC Country (The balance between population and resources)
3Optimum populationThe optimum population of an area is a theoretical state in which the number of people, when working with all the available resources, will produce the highest per capita economic return i.e. the highest standard of living and quality of life
4OverpopulationThis occurs when there are too many people relative to the resources and technology locally available to maintain an adequate standard of living.
5Under-populationThis occurs when there are far more resources in an area e.g. of food, energy and minerals, that can be used by the number of people living there
6Examples Over-population: Bangladesh, Ethiopia, China, India Under-population: Canada, Australia
7Terms must be used with care: Some parts of a country may be well off SE Brazil while others are not well off NE Brazil
8Theories Behind population and food supply Thomas MalthusA British Demographer who believed that there was a finite optimum population size in relation to food supply and that an increase in population beyond that point would lead to a decline in living standards and to war, famine and disease.His essay is infamous
10It’s debatable whether the principles of Malthus two hundred years ago (that were very revolutionary and controversial) have any relevance whatsoever to the modern world.To understand this setting, it’s important to look at what times were like in England, where this was written, was still perhaps reeling from the American Revolution. The world population in 1798 was at nine million people. We have now passed the six billion mark.With this setting Malthus emerged with this highly controversial essay. It was a reaction to a sense of optimism that was prevalent at this time.
11RationaleThe Core Principles of Malthus:Food is necessary for human existenceHuman population tends to grow faster than the power in the earth to produce subsistenceThe effects of these two unequal powers must be kept equalSince humans tend not to limit their population size voluntarily - “preventive checks” in Malthus’s terminology.
12He realised that as long as humans have food to eat that the population would tend to increase He saw that the limits to population growth could be decided by the amount of food suppliedMalthus noticed that increases in food production would increase in a simple arithmetic fashion- for example 1…2…3… and so on, whereas population usually increased in a geometric fashion- i.e. 12…4…8…16 and so on.
13Total pop. time Food supply ceiling or limit Food supply increases arithmeticallyPopulation increases geometrically
14By that law of our nature which makes food necessary to the life of man, the effects of these two unequal powers must be kept equal.
15The threat of famine and starvation would arise As you can see from the graph. Malthus was suggesting population growth would increase a lot faster and higher than the available food supply meaning that eventually.At a certain point, the limit of resources would be would be reached and the rate of population increase would level out. Until that point, Malthus suggested there would be a tendency for population increase.
17CHECKSMalthus suggested that once this ceiling (catastrophe) had been reached, further growth in population would be prevented by negative and positive checks. He saw the checks as a natural method of population control. They can be split up into 3 groups
18-VE - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - Negative Checks were used to limit the population growth. It included abstinence/ postponement of marriage- lowering fertility rate.
19+++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++ +VEPositive Checks were ways to reduce population size by events such as famine, disease, war - increasing mortality rate and reducing life expectancy.
20Malthus saw the checks as a natural method of population control Malthus saw the checks as a natural method of population control. They can be split up into 3 groups
21Misery - includes famine, war and disease. All of which shorten life expectancy.
222. Vice - Malthus’ warning against any methods of contraceptives for the fear of promiscuity.
233. Moral Restraint - Delaying/ postponement of marriage and sexual relations
24Malthus was quoted as saying: The power of the population is infinitely greater than the power of the Earth to produce sustenance
25LimitationsMalthus did not foresee the industrial or agricultural revolutionDevelopments in transport- more world tradeNew mineral resources developed
26TodayHis ideas have resurrected as the misery in Africa and lack of food is reflected on Malthus’s TheorySupporters called Neo- Malthusians
27Other ideas: Boserup Danish economist 1965 Alternative theory to MalthusShe suggested that as population increased, farming became more intensive due to innovation and the introduction of new methods and technology
28Club Rome 1972 An international team of scientists and administrators Predicted through computer use:If the present trends in population growth and resource utilisation continued then a sudden decline in economic growth would occur within the next century.
29Their suggestions Stabilise the following: Population growth Use of resourcesIndustrial growthEconomic developmentEmphasise the following:Food production and conservation