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Barely Legal: Dangerous Substances Under the Regulatory Radar

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Presentation on theme: "Barely Legal: Dangerous Substances Under the Regulatory Radar"— Presentation transcript:

1 Barely Legal: Dangerous Substances Under the Regulatory Radar
MICHAEL NERNEY and ASSOCIATES P.O. Box 93 Long Lake, NY (518)

2 Context Legal Issues Federal Analogue Act It’s About the Money
21 U.S.C Sect. 813 of the United States Controlled Substances Act, allows any chemical “substantially similar” to an illegal drug (Schedule I or II) to be treated as a Schedule I. Must be intended for human consumption. It’s About the Money Packaging Comments Not for human consumption Not for sale in the US Not to be sold to persons under 18

3 Historical Perspective
Not new development More than 100 years Synthesis Extraction and synthesis since the 1850’s Aspirin, morphine, cocaine, caffeine, nicotine Semi-synthetics Heroin Analogues A new form of designer drug 1960’s and 70’s hundreds of new drugs 80’s and 90’s new analogues each year Tango and Cash, China White

4 The Adolescent Brain Factor
Emotional Intensity Ages 11 – 24 years Amygdala Hormones Larger and more active 2 to 4 times https://images.nonexiste.net/popular/2012/03/30/diffusion-spectrum-imaging-reveals-an-orderly-weave-of-nerve-fibers-in-the-brain/

5 The Adolescent Brain Factor, con’t.
Risk Taking and Peers Change at 13 years old New sites appear in brain Emotional reward for risk taking Peer influence

6 Brain Factor, con’t. Social Media Facebook, Twitter, Tumblr, YouTube
Instant information Personal communication Possibly anonymous Nearly every young person has access

7 The Products: Marijuana Synthetics
Cannabinoids 3 experimental strands: JWH-073, JWH-018, 200, 250 CP 47, CP 80 HU-210 Clemson University John W. Huffman

8 Marijuana synthetics: Research Application
Animal Studies Medical Use of Cannabinoids Pain management Appetite regulation No human clinical trials Tested on primates and rodents

9 Marijuana synthetics: Diverted to the Public
K2, Spice, Blond, Standard, Spice Gold, Zohai, Genie 3-4 years under radar 2009 testing showed few herbal compounds New synthetic cannabinoids discovered (knockoff)

10 Marijuana synthetics: Legal Status
Not legal in NYS Distribution Possession

11 Marijuana synthetics: Effects
Physical Rapid onset Dilated pupils Time distortion Speech may be confused and non-responsive

12 Marijuana synthetics: Effects, con’t
Social/Emotional Bouts of laughter Interference with color and sound

13 Marijuana synthetics: Effects, con’t
Behavioral Increased appetite Cognitive deficiencies In vulnerable individuals: May lead to psychosis May deepen depression

14 Marijuana synthetics: significant risks
Addiction Anandamide influence High potency – more activity in CB1 and CB2 sites May lead to dependency and addiction Tolerance Withdrawal Compulsion Loss of Control Continued Use Despite Consequences

15 Marijuana synthetics: significant risks, cont
Non-responsive High dose – no divided attention Operation of any moving vehicle Not attentive to environmental risks Cognitive impact Measurable impact on memory and learning Potential paranoia and/or psychotic break Testing Requires specialized and sophisticated drug testing

16 Marijuana substitutes
Wicked X, Posh, Dank, K2 Compliant, Shakabuku, Kush, Bombay Blue, Aztec Gold “Not for human consumption” Sold as potpourri or aromatherapy Discreet shipping Blend of herbal compounds may include: Canavalia rosea, Clematis vitalba, Nelumbo nucifera, Pedicularis grandifolia, Heimia salicifolia, Leonurus sibiricus and Ledum palustre, Damiana, Lavender, Baybean, Yerba Mate

17 Marijuana substitutes: Legal Status
Legal in many states Available on reservation Expensive product for mild high

18 Marijuana substitutes: effects
Physical Mild mental stimulation Body relaxation Social/Emotional Relaxation Laughter Behavioral Disconnected

19 Marijuana substitutes: risks
Lung function Joints, blunts, pipes, bongs Vaporizers Unknown herbal products Damiana Yerba Mate Loaded Blunts Herbals plus smokable: Marijuana Heroin Cocaine Methamphetamine Ketamine

20 Salvia divinorum Diviner’s Sage Legal Status
Source – Mexico/Florida Sun Pharm Potency ratings 5x, 10x, 15x, 20x, 30x Salvinorin A Extract available Psychoactive compound

21 Salvia divinorum: effects
Physical Mild to moderate stimulation 5-10 minute duration Uncoordinated Social/Emotional Tactile, auditory and visual hallucinations Extended bouts of laughter Confusion and fearfulness

22 Salvia divinorum: effects, cont.
Behavioral Restless Non-responsive No impulse control At risk when unsupervised Motor control Depth perception

23 Salvia divinorum: Risks and testing
YouTube – Salvia Bad Trips Highly unpredictable Random rapid movements Injury to self or others Non-responsive to intervention Fatal accidents and falls Testing is limited

24 Bath salts Vanilla Skye, Red Dove, Blue Silk, Ocean Burst
Not for Human Consumption Smoked, snorted, oral Injected

25 Bath salts, cont Contents: Mephedrone MDPV TFMPP Plant food
Similar to amphetamine MDPV Similar to Ritalin Party enhancer Mimics ecstasy TFMPP Hallucinogenic Less powerful

26 Bath salts: effects Physical Social/Emotional Behavioral
Increased heart rate and blood pressure Stimulant, high energy Restlessness Decreased appetite Impaired sleep Social/Emotional Euphoria Excitement Alertness Increased sexuality Behavioral Manic Repetitive behaviors

27 Bath salts: risks Unpredictable Agitation and fearfulness
Sleep deficits Aggressive paranoia Psychosis Seizures Coma Suicidal ideation

28 Bath salts: legal status and testing
Illegal to distribute or possess Except for TFMPP 2C-I Testing is specialized

29 Alcohol: new products Alcohol treats Pocket Shots

30 Alcohol: new products, cont.
Malt Beverages Malt brewed beer Sugars Flavors 20 – 24 ounces 7 – 13% alcohol

31 Alcohol: Route of administration
Oral Mucous membranes Inhalation

32 Alcohol: Other products
Hand Sanitizer Infused Marijuana

33 Alcohol and Caffeine mix.
Impact on Brain Two systems activated Stimulatory – caffeine Biphasic – alcohol Harvard University study “Wide Awake Drunk”

34 Alcohol and caffeine: Risk factors
Physical Energized Uncoordinated 30% drop in glucose uptake in motor cortex 30% drop in glucose uptake in visual cortex Slower reaction time

35 Alcohol and caffeine: Risk factors, cont.
Behavioral Sense of competence Aggressive social interactions Twice as likely to suffer physical injury Twice as likely to get in fights Twice as likely to be either a victim or a perpetrator of sexual assault

36 Alcohol and caffeine: Risk factors
High risk when operating any moving vehicle Auto/motorcycle 32% of all crashes alcohol-related Boat 60% of fatalities alcohol-related Bike/skateboard High risk: Swimming Heights Parties

37 Alcohol and over-the-counter drugs
Robo-shots Dextromethorphan Opioid cough suppressant Plus alcohol Rapid and powerful intoxication Motor control Impulse control Delusional

38 Alcohol and prescription pain medications
Oxycontin Vicodin Roxanol Opana

39 Alcohol and heroin Pain Medication Street Drug
Routes of Administration

40 RISK FACTORS Addiction Infection Overdose

41 Empathogens Molly MDMA Mollylicious PMMA MDMA Methamphetamine Caffeine
Methylsulfonylmethane Safrole 7 6 5 2 1 May 26, 2012

42 Empathogens 2c-I Smiles Several Fatal Events

43 From the kitchen Nutmeg Long lasting Side effects Hallucinogenic

44 hallucinogens DMT Dimethyltriptamine Businessman's Lunch

45 Wrap up Substantial uncertainty regarding actual ingredients
Possible contaminants and/or toxins No accurate measurement of potency Unpredictable response No human trials No information regarding long-term health consequences


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