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Native Americans Under Siege: 1854-1890. Organized into tribes, which were usually subdivided into "bands" of about 500 men and women, each with a governing.

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Presentation on theme: "Native Americans Under Siege: 1854-1890. Organized into tribes, which were usually subdivided into "bands" of about 500 men and women, each with a governing."— Presentation transcript:

1 Native Americans Under Siege: 1854-1890

2 Organized into tribes, which were usually subdivided into "bands" of about 500 men and women, each with a governing council. Women assumed domestic & artistic roles, while men hunted, traded, and supervised religious & military life. Each tribes warrior class competed with others to demonstrate bravery. Never successfully united politically or militarily against white power, thus contributing to their defeat by the white society.

3 1851: Concentration Policy - US government tried to concentrate Native Americans into areas north & south of those intended for white settlement. 1860s: Relocation Policy – Native Americans were herded into still smaller areas o Sioux "guaranteed" sanctuary of Black Hills in Dakota Territory. o Other tribes relocated to "Indian Territory" (present-day Oklahoma) o Bureau of Indian Affairs in the Department of the Interior was put in charge of the reservations.

4 1854-1890: Near constant warfare raged in West between Native Americans & whites. o US troops were largely Civil War veterans. o 1/5 of all soldiers assigned to frontier were black (Buffalo Soldiers) o Led by Sherman, Sheridan, & Custer.

5 November 1864: Colonel John Chivingtons militia massacred more than 200 Indians who had just signed a peace treaty with the US government

6 1874: Gold was discovered in the Black Hills of South Dakota. May 1875: Sioux leaders traveled to Washington, DC in order to persuade the government to honor existing treaties November 1875: Sioux were ordered to return to their reservation. February 1876: The matter was turned over to the US army.

7 June1876: Battle of Little Big Horn o Colonel George Custers forces clashed with nearly 4000 well armed warriors led by Crazy Horse and Sitting Bull o Custer, along with more than 250 of his men were killed o US reinforcements chased Sitting Bull to Canada where he received political asylum; hunger forced them to return & surrender by 1876.

8 1855: Nez Perce ceded much land to US in return for large reservation in Oregon and Idaho; later ceded more lands when gold was discovered. June 1877: US government ordered the Nez Perce to move to a reservation in Idaho. o Nez Perce, led by Chief Joseph, began a 75-day, 1300 mile trek; forced to surrender 40 miles south of the Canadian border October 1877: Nez Perce were moved south to a malaria infested camp in Kansas before their final relocation in Oklahoma

9 1874: US government ordered the Apache onto a reservation in San Carlos, Arizona o About ½ of the Indians, led by Geronimo, escaped to Mexico o Throughout the 1870s & early 1880, Geronimo raided settlements on both sides of the US-Mexican border 1884: Geronimo surrendered to the US army o 1885: Geronimo, along with a small band of warriors & their families escaped again 1886: Geronimo & his followers were captured & held as prisoners of war in Florida 1894: Geronimo was sent to Fort Still, Oklahoma

10 Last major clash between US troops & Native Americans Issue: The US army was sent to end sacred "Ghost Dance" performed by Dakota Sioux. o Believers expected the white man to disappear from Native lands & for the buffalo to return in abundance. o Indian agents feared it was a prelude to an attack. They ordered Sitting Bulls arrest. He, along with 6 policemen & 7 supporters died in the mayhem that followed. His supporters fled.

11 December 29: The Dakota Sioux were intercepted on the edge of the Wounded Knee Creek. o The US Army ordered the Sioux to surrender their weapons. o Yellow Bird began to perform the Ghost Dance. o Black Coyote, who was deaf, refused to surrender his rifle which discharged. o Within minutes, 200 Sioux were dead. o The US Army then went after the fleeing women & children, killing them as well.

12 National sentiment began to urge reform toward Native Americans. o 1881: Helen Hunt Jackson: A Century of Dishonor Chronicled the record of government ruthlessness & deceit toward Native Americans Had similar emotional impact of Stowes Uncle Toms Cabin Inspired the movement to assimilate Native Americans "for their own good."

13 Provisions: o Dissolved many tribes as legal entities. o Wiped out tribal ownership of land. o Set up individual Native American family heads with allotment of 160 free acres. o Allowed for US citizenship in 25 years. Results o Army-style boarding schools were set up where Indians prohibited to exercise any portion of their culture. o 2/3 of Indians remaining land was lost. o Remained official Indian policy until 1934. o Helped Indian population to grow from about 243,000 in 1887 to 1.5 million in 1990.

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