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Foundations of Modern Trade Theory: Comparative Advantage © 2011 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be copied, scanned, or duplicated, in whole.

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Presentation on theme: "Foundations of Modern Trade Theory: Comparative Advantage © 2011 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be copied, scanned, or duplicated, in whole."— Presentation transcript:

1 Foundations of Modern Trade Theory: Comparative Advantage © 2011 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be copied, scanned, or duplicated, in whole or in part, except for use as permitted in a license distributed with a certain product or service or otherwise on a passwordprotected website for classroom use 1 PowerPoint slides prepared by: Andreea Chiritescu Eastern Illinois University

2 Historical Development of Modern Trade Theory The Mercantilists, 1500–1800 A strong foreign-trade sector Favorable trade balance Net payments - gold and silver Increased spending Rise in domestic output and employment Promote a favorable trade balance Government regulation of trade Tariffs, quotas, other commercial policies Static view of the world economy © 2011 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be copied, scanned, or duplicated, in whole or in part, except for use as permitted in a license distributed with a certain product or service or otherwise on a passwordprotected website for classroom use 2

3 Historical Development of Modern Trade Theory The Mercantilists under attack David Humes price-specie-flow doctrine A favorable trade balance is possible only in the short run 1776, Adam Smith, The Wealth of Nations Worlds wealth is not a fixed quantity International trade Increase the general level of productivity within a country Increase world output (wealth) © 2011 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be copied, scanned, or duplicated, in whole or in part, except for use as permitted in a license distributed with a certain product or service or otherwise on a passwordprotected website for classroom use 3

4 Historical Development of Modern Trade Theory Why Nations Trade: Absolute Advantage Adam Smith – free trade advocate Production costs differ among nations Different productivities of factor inputs Labor – homogenous Absolute cost advantage Uses less labor to produce one unit of output © 2011 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be copied, scanned, or duplicated, in whole or in part, except for use as permitted in a license distributed with a certain product or service or otherwise on a passwordprotected website for classroom use 4

5 Historical Development of Modern Trade Theory Principle of absolute advantage A two-nation, two-product world International specialization and trade One nation - absolute cost advantage in one good The other nation - absolute cost advantage in the other good Each nation must have a good that it is absolutely more efficient in producing than its trading partner Import goods – if absolute cost disadvantage Export goods – if absolute cost advantage © 2011 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be copied, scanned, or duplicated, in whole or in part, except for use as permitted in a license distributed with a certain product or service or otherwise on a passwordprotected website for classroom use 5

6 6 Absolute advantage; each nation is more efficient in producing one good TABLE 2.1

7 Historical Development of Modern Trade Theory Why Nations Trade: Comparative Advantage 1800, David Ricardo (1772–1823) Free trade Mutually beneficial trade can occur whether or not countries have any absolute advantage Principle of comparative advantage Emphasized comparative (relative) cost differences © 2011 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be copied, scanned, or duplicated, in whole or in part, except for use as permitted in a license distributed with a certain product or service or otherwise on a passwordprotected website for classroom use 7

8 Historical Development of Modern Trade Theory Principle of comparative advantage Even if a nation has an absolute cost disadvantage in the production of both goods The less efficient nation Specialize in and export the good in which it is relatively less inefficient Where its absolute disadvantage is least The more efficient nation Specialize in and export that good in which it is relatively more efficient Where its absolute advantage is greatest © 2011 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be copied, scanned, or duplicated, in whole or in part, except for use as permitted in a license distributed with a certain product or service or otherwise on a passwordprotected website for classroom use 8

9 9 Examples of comparative advantages in international trade TABLE 2.2

10 Historical Development of Modern Trade Theory Principle of comparative advantage, simplified model - assumptions: 1. The world consists of two nations Each – use a single input, produce two commodities 2. In each nation, labor is the only input Fixed endowment of labor Labor is fully employed and homogeneous 3. Labor can move freely among industries Within a nation But is incapable of moving between nations © 2011 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be copied, scanned, or duplicated, in whole or in part, except for use as permitted in a license distributed with a certain product or service or otherwise on a passwordprotected website for classroom use 10

11 Historical Development of Modern Trade Theory Principle of comparative advantage, simplified model - assumptions: 4. Technology - fixed for both nations Different nations may use different technologies All firms within each nation - a common production method for each commodity 5. Costs do not vary with the level of production Proportional to the amount of labor used © 2011 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be copied, scanned, or duplicated, in whole or in part, except for use as permitted in a license distributed with a certain product or service or otherwise on a passwordprotected website for classroom use 11

12 Historical Development of Modern Trade Theory Principle of comparative advantage, simplified model - assumptions: 6. Perfect competition prevails in all markets All are price takers Identical products Free entry to and exit from an industry Price of each product = products marginal cost of production 7. Free trade occurs between nations No government barriers to trade © 2011 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be copied, scanned, or duplicated, in whole or in part, except for use as permitted in a license distributed with a certain product or service or otherwise on a passwordprotected website for classroom use 12

13 Historical Development of Modern Trade Theory Principle of comparative advantage, simplified model - assumptions: 8. Transportation costs are zero Consumers - indifferent between domestically produced and imported versions of a product if the domestic prices of the two products are identical 9. Firms make production decisions in an attempt to maximize profits Consumers maximize satisfaction through their consumption decisions © 2011 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be copied, scanned, or duplicated, in whole or in part, except for use as permitted in a license distributed with a certain product or service or otherwise on a passwordprotected website for classroom use 13

14 Historical Development of Modern Trade Theory Principle of comparative advantage, simplified model - assumptions: 10. There is no money illusion When consumers make their consumption choices and firms make their production decisions, they take into account the behavior of all prices 11. Trade is balanced Exports must pay for imports Ruling out flows of money between nations © 2011 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be copied, scanned, or duplicated, in whole or in part, except for use as permitted in a license distributed with a certain product or service or otherwise on a passwordprotected website for classroom use 14

15 © 2011 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be copied, scanned, or duplicated, in whole or in part, except for use as permitted in a license distributed with a certain product or service or otherwise on a passwordprotected website for classroom use 15 Comparative advantage, U.S. -absolute advantage in producing both goods TABLE 2.3

16 TRADE CONFLICTS David Ricardo, 1772–1823 Leading British economist of the early 1800s Theories of classical economics Economic freedom through free trade and competition Successful businessman, financier, speculator Stockbroker, loan broker 1819 – 1823, British parliament Advocated the repeal of the Corn Laws (trade barriers) © 2011 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be copied, scanned, or duplicated, in whole or in part, except for use as permitted in a license distributed with a certain product or service or otherwise on a passwordprotected website for classroom use 16

17 TRADE CONFLICTS David Ricardo, 1772–1823 Interest in economics Adam Smiths The Wealth of Nations Newspaper articles on economic questions 1817, The Principles of Political Economy and Taxation Laid out the theory of comparative advantage Advocate of free trade Opponent of protectionism © 2011 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be copied, scanned, or duplicated, in whole or in part, except for use as permitted in a license distributed with a certain product or service or otherwise on a passwordprotected website for classroom use 17

18 Production Possibilities Schedules Modern trade theory More generalized theory of comparative advantage Use a production possibilities schedule Transformation schedule © 2011 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be copied, scanned, or duplicated, in whole or in part, except for use as permitted in a license distributed with a certain product or service or otherwise on a passwordprotected website for classroom use 18

19 Production Possibilities Schedules Production possibilities schedule Various alternative combinations of two goods A nation can produce When all of its factor inputs Land, labor, capital, entrepreneurship Are used in their most efficient manner Maximum output possibilities of a nation © 2011 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be copied, scanned, or duplicated, in whole or in part, except for use as permitted in a license distributed with a certain product or service or otherwise on a passwordprotected website for classroom use 19

20 With constant opportunity costs, a nation will specialize in the product of its comparative advantage. The principle of comparative advantage implies that with specialization and free trade, a nation enjoys production gains and consumption gains. A nations trade triangle denotes its exports, imports, and terms of trade. In a two nation, two product world, the trade triangle of one nation equals that of the other nation; one nations exports equal the other nations imports, and there is one equilibrium terms of trade. © 2011 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be copied, scanned, or duplicated, in whole or in part, except for use as permitted in a license distributed with a certain product or service or otherwise on a passwordprotected website for classroom use 20 Trading under constant opportunity costs FIGURE 2.1

21 Production Possibilities Schedules Marginal rate of transformation, MRT The amount of one product a nation must sacrifice to get one additional unit of the other product Rate of sacrifice = opportunity cost of a product Absolute value of the slope of production possibilities schedule For Figure 2.1 © 2011 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be copied, scanned, or duplicated, in whole or in part, except for use as permitted in a license distributed with a certain product or service or otherwise on a passwordprotected website for classroom use 21

22 Trading Under Constant-Cost Conditions Constant opportunity costs Straight line production possibilities schedules Factors of production Perfect substitutes for each other All units of a given factor are of the same quality Autarky Absence of trade © 2011 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be copied, scanned, or duplicated, in whole or in part, except for use as permitted in a license distributed with a certain product or service or otherwise on a passwordprotected website for classroom use 22

23 Trading Under Constant-Cost Conditions Basis for Trade Principle of comparative advantage Direction of Trade Specialize and export the good with the lowest opportunity cost Production Gains from Specialization Production gains for both countries Arise from the reallocation of existing resources Static gains from specialization © 2011 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be copied, scanned, or duplicated, in whole or in part, except for use as permitted in a license distributed with a certain product or service or otherwise on a passwordprotected website for classroom use 23

24 © 2011 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be copied, scanned, or duplicated, in whole or in part, except for use as permitted in a license distributed with a certain product or service or otherwise on a passwordprotected website for classroom use 24 Gains from specialization & trade: constant opportunity costs TABLE 2.4

25 Trading Under Constant-Cost Conditions Consumption Gains from Trade Trade = consumption gains for both countries Consumption points Outside domestic production possibilities schedules Consume more of both goods Terms of trade Rate at which a countrys export product is traded for the other countrys export product Define the relative prices of the two products © 2011 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be copied, scanned, or duplicated, in whole or in part, except for use as permitted in a license distributed with a certain product or service or otherwise on a passwordprotected website for classroom use 25

26 Trading Under Constant-Cost Conditions Domestic rate of transformation Domestic terms of trade Slope of the production possibilities schedule Relative prices that two commodities can be exchanged at home Terms of trade for exports More favorable than domestic terms of trade © 2011 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be copied, scanned, or duplicated, in whole or in part, except for use as permitted in a license distributed with a certain product or service or otherwise on a passwordprotected website for classroom use 26

27 Trading Under Constant-Cost Conditions Trading possibilities line International terms of trade for both countries Trade triangle for a country Exports – along the horizontal axis Imports – along the vertical axis Terms of trade – the slope Complete specialization Produce only one product © 2011 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be copied, scanned, or duplicated, in whole or in part, except for use as permitted in a license distributed with a certain product or service or otherwise on a passwordprotected website for classroom use 27

28 Trading Under Constant-Cost Conditions Domestic cost ratio Negatively sloped production possibilities schedule Transform into a positively sloped cost-ratio line Outer limits for the equilibrium terms of trade Becomes no-trade boundary Region of mutually beneficial trade Bounded by the cost ratios of the two countries © 2011 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be copied, scanned, or duplicated, in whole or in part, except for use as permitted in a license distributed with a certain product or service or otherwise on a passwordprotected website for classroom use 28

29 The supply-side analysis of Ricardo describes the outer limits within which the equilibrium terms of trade must fall. The domestic cost ratios set the outer limits for the equilibrium terms of trade. Mutually beneficial trade for both nations occurs if the equilibrium terms of trade lies between the two nations domestic cost ratios. According to the theory of reciprocal demand, the actual exchange ratio at which trade occurs depends on the trading partners interacting demands. © 2011 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be copied, scanned, or duplicated, in whole or in part, except for use as permitted in a license distributed with a certain product or service or otherwise on a passwordprotected website for classroom use 29 Equilibrium terms-of-trade limits FIGURE 2.2

30 Trading Under Constant-Cost Conditions Equilibrium Terms of Trade, John Stuart Mill (1806–1873) Add the intensity of the trading partners demands Determine the actual terms of trade The theory of reciprocal demand © 2011 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be copied, scanned, or duplicated, in whole or in part, except for use as permitted in a license distributed with a certain product or service or otherwise on a passwordprotected website for classroom use 30

31 Trading Under Constant-Cost Conditions Theory of reciprocal demand Within the outer limits of the terms of trade Actual terms of trade are determined by the relative strength of each countrys demand for the other countrys product Production costs determine the outer limits of the terms of trade Reciprocal demand determines what the actual terms of trade will be within those limits © 2011 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be copied, scanned, or duplicated, in whole or in part, except for use as permitted in a license distributed with a certain product or service or otherwise on a passwordprotected website for classroom use 31

32 Trading Under Constant-Cost Conditions Theory of reciprocal demand Best applies when both nations are of equal economic size The demand of each nation - noticeable effect on market price If two nations are of unequal economic size The relative demand strength of the smaller nation will be dwarfed by that of the larger nation Domestic exchange ratio of the larger nation will prevail The small nation can export as much of the commodity as it desires © 2011 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be copied, scanned, or duplicated, in whole or in part, except for use as permitted in a license distributed with a certain product or service or otherwise on a passwordprotected website for classroom use 32

33 Trading Under Constant-Cost Conditions The importance of being unimportant For two nations engaged in international trade Same size, similar taste patterns Gains from trade – shared equally between them One nation is significantly larger than the other Larger nation - fewer gains from trade Smaller nation - most of the gains from trade © 2011 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be copied, scanned, or duplicated, in whole or in part, except for use as permitted in a license distributed with a certain product or service or otherwise on a passwordprotected website for classroom use 33

34 TRADE CONFLICTS Babe Ruth and the principle of comparative advantage George Herman Ruth (1895–1948) 1914 – 1920, Boston Red Sox, 158 games Left-handed pitcher Pitching record: 89 wins and 46 losses 23 victories in 1916 24 victories in 1917 Babe Ruth Absolute advantage in pitching Comparative advantage in hitting © 2011 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be copied, scanned, or duplicated, in whole or in part, except for use as permitted in a license distributed with a certain product or service or otherwise on a passwordprotected website for classroom use 34

35 TRADE CONFLICTS Babe Ruth and the principle of comparative advantage 1920 – 1934, New York Yankees, Babe Ruth Ended his pitching career - 2.28 earned run average Switched to only hitting Dominated professional baseball Teamed with Lou Gehrig Greatest one-two hitting punch in baseball 1927 Yankees - the best in baseball history Record of 60 home runs © 2011 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be copied, scanned, or duplicated, in whole or in part, except for use as permitted in a license distributed with a certain product or service or otherwise on a passwordprotected website for classroom use 35

36 TRADE CONFLICTS Babe Ruth and the principle of comparative advantage 1920 – 1934, New York Yankees, Babe Ruth 1923, Yankee Stadium – nicknamed The House That Ruth Built Baseball Hall of Fame, 1936 Win four World Series Most renewed franchise © 2011 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be copied, scanned, or duplicated, in whole or in part, except for use as permitted in a license distributed with a certain product or service or otherwise on a passwordprotected website for classroom use 36

37 Trading Under Constant-Cost Conditions Terms-of-Trade Estimates Commodity terms of trade Barter terms of trade Measure of the international exchange ratio Measures the relation between the prices a nation gets for its exports and the prices it pays for its imports © 2011 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be copied, scanned, or duplicated, in whole or in part, except for use as permitted in a license distributed with a certain product or service or otherwise on a passwordprotected website for classroom use 37

38 Trading Under Constant-Cost Conditions Improvement in a nations terms of trade Rise in its export prices Relative to its import prices A smaller quantity of export goods sold abroad Required to obtain a given quantity of imports Deterioration in a nations terms of trade Rise in its import prices Relative to its export prices Purchase of a given quantity of imports Sacrifice of a greater quantity of exports © 2011 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be copied, scanned, or duplicated, in whole or in part, except for use as permitted in a license distributed with a certain product or service or otherwise on a passwordprotected website for classroom use 38

39 © 2011 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be copied, scanned, or duplicated, in whole or in part, except for use as permitted in a license distributed with a certain product or service or otherwise on a passwordprotected website for classroom use 39 Commodity terms of trade, 2008 (2000 = 100) TABLE 2.5

40 Dynamic Gains From Trade Dynamic gains from international trade More efficient use of an economys resources Higher output and income More saving, More investment Higher rate of economic growth Higher productivity Economies of large-scale production Increased competition © 2011 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be copied, scanned, or duplicated, in whole or in part, except for use as permitted in a license distributed with a certain product or service or otherwise on a passwordprotected website for classroom use 40

41 Changing Comparative Advantage Patterns of comparative advantage change over time Productivity increases Production possibilities schedule changes More output can be produced - with the same amount of resources Producers - need to hone their skills to compete in more profitable areas © 2011 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be copied, scanned, or duplicated, in whole or in part, except for use as permitted in a license distributed with a certain product or service or otherwise on a passwordprotected website for classroom use 41

42 If productivity in the Japanese computer industry grows faster than it does in the U.S. computer industry, the opportunity cost of each computer produced in the United States increases relative to the opportunity cost of the Japanese. For the United States, comparative advantage shifts from computers to autos. © 2011 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be copied, scanned, or duplicated, in whole or in part, except for use as permitted in a license distributed with a certain product or service or otherwise on a passwordprotected website for classroom use 42 Changing comparative advantage FIGURE 2.3

43 Trading Under Increasing-Cost Conditions Increasing opportunity costs Concave production possibilities schedule Bowed outward from the diagrams origin Inputs are imperfect substitutes for each other MRT rises Absolute slope of the production possibilities schedule © 2011 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be copied, scanned, or duplicated, in whole or in part, except for use as permitted in a license distributed with a certain product or service or otherwise on a passwordprotected website for classroom use 43

44 Increasing opportunity costs lead to a production possibilities schedule that is concave, viewed from the diagrams origin. The marginal rate of transformation equals the (absolute) slope of the production possibilities schedule at a particular point along the schedule. © 2011 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be copied, scanned, or duplicated, in whole or in part, except for use as permitted in a license distributed with a certain product or service or otherwise on a passwordprotected website for classroom use 44 Production possibilities schedule; increasing-cost conditions FIGURE 2.4

45 Trading Under Increasing-Cost Conditions Increasing-Cost Trading Case One country specializes in producing one good The other country specializes in producing the other good Specialization continues in both nations until Relative cost of one good is identical in both nations One countrys exports of one good are precisely equal to the other countrys imports of the good Same domestic rates of transformation © 2011 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be copied, scanned, or duplicated, in whole or in part, except for use as permitted in a license distributed with a certain product or service or otherwise on a passwordprotected website for classroom use 45

46 With increasing opportunity costs, comparative product prices in each country are determined by both supply and demand factors. A country tends to partially specialize in the product of its comparative advantage under increasing cost conditions. © 2011 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be copied, scanned, or duplicated, in whole or in part, except for use as permitted in a license distributed with a certain product or service or otherwise on a passwordprotected website for classroom use 46 Trading under increasing opportunity costs FIGURE 2.5

47 Trading Under Increasing-Cost Conditions Production gains More of each good is being produced Consumption gains Both countries consume more of at least one good The trade triangle Exports, imports, and terms of trade Same for both countries © 2011 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be copied, scanned, or duplicated, in whole or in part, except for use as permitted in a license distributed with a certain product or service or otherwise on a passwordprotected website for classroom use 47

48 © 2011 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be copied, scanned, or duplicated, in whole or in part, except for use as permitted in a license distributed with a certain product or service or otherwise on a passwordprotected website for classroom use 48 Gains from specialization and trade: increasing opportunity costs TABLE 2.6

49 Trading Under Increasing-Cost Conditions Partial Specialization Each country specialize only partially In the production of the good in which it has a comparative advantage Increasing costs - mechanism that forces costs in two trading nations to converge Basis for further specialization ceases to exist Both nations will produce some of each good © 2011 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be copied, scanned, or duplicated, in whole or in part, except for use as permitted in a license distributed with a certain product or service or otherwise on a passwordprotected website for classroom use 49

50 Trading Under Increasing-Cost Conditions Partial Specialization Not all goods and services are traded internationally Differing tastes for products Most products are differentiated © 2011 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be copied, scanned, or duplicated, in whole or in part, except for use as permitted in a license distributed with a certain product or service or otherwise on a passwordprotected website for classroom use 50

51 The Impact of Trade on Jobs Extent to which an economy is open Influences the mix of jobs within an economy Can cause dislocation in certain areas or industries Little effect on the overall level of employment © 2011 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be copied, scanned, or duplicated, in whole or in part, except for use as permitted in a license distributed with a certain product or service or otherwise on a passwordprotected website for classroom use 51

52 Increased international trade tends to neither inhibit overall job creation nor contribute to an increase in the overall rate of unemployment. As seen in the figure, the increase in U.S. imports as a percentage of GDP over the past several decades has not led to any significant trend in the overall unemployment for Americans. © 2011 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be copied, scanned, or duplicated, in whole or in part, except for use as permitted in a license distributed with a certain product or service or otherwise on a passwordprotected website for classroom use 52 The impact of trade on jobs FIGURE 2.6

53 Comparative Advantage Extended to Many Products and Countries More Than Two Products Comparative advantage Rank the goods by the degree of comparative cost Each country exports the product(s) Has the greatest comparative advantage Each country imports the product(s) Has greatest comparative disadvantage Cutoff point between exports and imports Relative strength of international demand © 2011 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be copied, scanned, or duplicated, in whole or in part, except for use as permitted in a license distributed with a certain product or service or otherwise on a passwordprotected website for classroom use 53

54 When a large number of goods is produced by two countries, operation of the comparative-advantage principle requires the goods to be ranked by the degree of comparative cost. Each country exports the product(s) in which its comparative advantage is strongest. Each country imports the product(s) in which its comparative advantage is weakest. © 2011 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be copied, scanned, or duplicated, in whole or in part, except for use as permitted in a license distributed with a certain product or service or otherwise on a passwordprotected website for classroom use 54 Hypothetical spectrum of comparative advantages, U.S. and Japan FIGURE 2.7

55 Comparative Advantage Extended to Many Products and Countries More Than Two Countries Multilateral trading relations Bilateral balance should not pertain to any two trading partners Trade surplus With trading partners that buy a lot of the things that it supplies at low cost Trade deficit With trading partners that are low-cost suppliers of goods that it imports intensely © 2011 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be copied, scanned, or duplicated, in whole or in part, except for use as permitted in a license distributed with a certain product or service or otherwise on a passwordprotected website for classroom use 55

56 When many countries are involved in international trade, the home country will likely find it advantageous to enter into multilateral trading relations with a number of countries. This figure illustrates the process of multilateral trade for the United States, Japan, and OPEC. © 2011 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be copied, scanned, or duplicated, in whole or in part, except for use as permitted in a license distributed with a certain product or service or otherwise on a passwordprotected website for classroom use 56 Multilateral trade: U.S., Japan, and OPEC FIGURE 2.8

57 Exit Barriers Open trading system Channeling resources from uses of low productivity to those of high productivity Competition High cost plants exit Low cost plants operate in the long run © 2011 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be copied, scanned, or duplicated, in whole or in part, except for use as permitted in a license distributed with a certain product or service or otherwise on a passwordprotected website for classroom use 57

58 Exit Barriers Restructuring of inefficient companies Long time Cling to capacity Existence of exit barriers Various cost conditions -make lengthy exit a rational response by companies Hinder the market adjustments © 2011 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be copied, scanned, or duplicated, in whole or in part, except for use as permitted in a license distributed with a certain product or service or otherwise on a passwordprotected website for classroom use 58

59 Empirical Evidence on Comparative Advantage The Ricardian model Nations export goods - their labor productivity is relatively high Testing the Ricardian model G.D.A. MacDougall, 1951 Export patterns of 25 separate industries; United States and United Kingdom, 1937 20 industries fit the predicted pattern Balassa and Stern Also supported Ricardos conclusions © 2011 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be copied, scanned, or duplicated, in whole or in part, except for use as permitted in a license distributed with a certain product or service or otherwise on a passwordprotected website for classroom use 59

60 Empirical Evidence on Comparative Advantage Testing the Ricardian model Stephen Golub Relative unit labor costs and trade for United States United Kingdom, Japan, Germany, Canada, Australia Relative unit labor cost helps to explain trade patterns for these nations Limitations of the Ricardian model Labor is not the only factor input Production and distribution costs Differences in product quality © 2011 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be copied, scanned, or duplicated, in whole or in part, except for use as permitted in a license distributed with a certain product or service or otherwise on a passwordprotected website for classroom use 60

61 The figure displays a scatter plot of U.S./Japan export data for 33 industries. It shows a clear negative correlation between relative exports and relative unit labor costs. A rightward movement along the figures horizontal axis indicates a rise in U.S. unit labor costs relative to Japanese unit labor costs; this correlates with a decline in U.S. exports relative to Japanese exports, a downward movement along the figures vertical axis. © 2011 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be copied, scanned, or duplicated, in whole or in part, except for use as permitted in a license distributed with a certain product or service or otherwise on a passwordprotected website for classroom use 61 Relative exports & relative unit labor costs: U.S./Japan, 1990 FIGURE 2.9

62 Does Comparative Advantage Apply in the Face of Job Outsourcing? Comparative advantage Weakened if resources can move to wherever they are most productive Relatively few nations with abundant cheap labor No longer shared gains Some nations win and others lose © 2011 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be copied, scanned, or duplicated, in whole or in part, except for use as permitted in a license distributed with a certain product or service or otherwise on a passwordprotected website for classroom use 62

63 Does Comparative Advantage Apply in the Face of Job Outsourcing? Major change in the world economy Strong educational systems Millions of skilled workers in developing nations, China and India As capable as the most highly educated workers in advanced nations Much lower cost Inexpensive Internet technology Many workers to be located anywhere New political stability Technology and capital to move more freely around the globe © 2011 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be copied, scanned, or duplicated, in whole or in part, except for use as permitted in a license distributed with a certain product or service or otherwise on a passwordprotected website for classroom use 63

64 © 2011 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be copied, scanned, or duplicated, in whole or in part, except for use as permitted in a license distributed with a certain product or service or otherwise on a passwordprotected website for classroom use 64 U.S. occupations regarded as highly likely to go offshore TABLE 2.7

65 Does Comparative Advantage Apply in the Face of Job Outsourcing? Advantages of Outsourcing Reduced costs and increased competitiveness New exports Repatriated earnings Job losses tend to be temporary The creation of new industries and new products More lucrative jobs for Americans © 2011 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be copied, scanned, or duplicated, in whole or in part, except for use as permitted in a license distributed with a certain product or service or otherwise on a passwordprotected website for classroom use 65

66 Does Comparative Advantage Apply in the Face of Job Outsourcing? Outsourcing and the U.S. Automobile Industry Early 1900s, Ford Motor Company – Model T: 700 parts Gains of large-scale mass production Gains of a high degree of specialization within a single plant More sophisticated cars and competition Ford – outsource production Keep strategically important tasks & production in-house Noncore tasks purchased from external suppliers © 2011 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be copied, scanned, or duplicated, in whole or in part, except for use as permitted in a license distributed with a certain product or service or otherwise on a passwordprotected website for classroom use 66

67 GLOBALIZATION Outsourcing of Boeing 787 Dreamliner triggers machinists strike 2007, Boeing 787 Dreamliner, $150 million 3 Japanese firms, 35% of the design and manufacturing work Boeing - final assembly in three days Italy, China, and Australia © 2011 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be copied, scanned, or duplicated, in whole or in part, except for use as permitted in a license distributed with a certain product or service or otherwise on a passwordprotected website for classroom use 67

68 GLOBALIZATION Outsourcing of Boeing 787 Dreamliner triggers machinists strike Gains from globalization Decrease the time required to build its jets by more than 50 percent Decrease costs - Foreign suppliers to absorb some of the costs of developing the plane Spreading the risk Engineering talent and technical capacity Maintain close relationships with its customers © 2011 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be copied, scanned, or duplicated, in whole or in part, except for use as permitted in a license distributed with a certain product or service or otherwise on a passwordprotected website for classroom use 68

69 GLOBALIZATION Outsourcing of Boeing 787 Dreamliner triggers machinists strike Boeings suppliers fell behind Production -more than a year behind schedule Language barriers Some contractors outsourced chunks of work Boeings union workforce Anger and anxiety Fear of losing their jobs to outsourcing Strike in 2008 Nearly 27,000 machinists walked off their jobs © 2011 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be copied, scanned, or duplicated, in whole or in part, except for use as permitted in a license distributed with a certain product or service or otherwise on a passwordprotected website for classroom use 69

70 © 2011 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be copied, scanned, or duplicated, in whole or in part, except for use as permitted in a license distributed with a certain product or service or otherwise on a passwordprotected website for classroom use 70 Producing the Boeing 787: how Boeing outsources its work TABLE 2.8

71 Does Comparative Advantage Apply in the Face of Job Outsourcing? Outsourcing and the U.S. Automobile Industry Increasing numbers of parts and services – noncore Today - about 70% of a typical Ford vehicle Parts, components, and services purchased from external suppliers © 2011 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be copied, scanned, or duplicated, in whole or in part, except for use as permitted in a license distributed with a certain product or service or otherwise on a passwordprotected website for classroom use 71

72 Does Comparative Advantage Apply in the Face of Job Outsourcing? Burdens of Outsourcing Americans who lose their jobs or find lower- wage ones Wages of low-skilled American workers High school education or less Decreased in real terms Decreased relative to the wages of skilled workers (college education or higher) © 2011 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be copied, scanned, or duplicated, in whole or in part, except for use as permitted in a license distributed with a certain product or service or otherwise on a passwordprotected website for classroom use 72

73 Does Comparative Advantage Apply in the Face of Job Outsourcing? Technological change and outsourcing Declining demand for low-skilled American workers Outsourcing of high-skilled jobs Shift demand to cheaper substitutes in Asia May yield economic benefits for the nation Losers – the displaced workers © 2011 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be copied, scanned, or duplicated, in whole or in part, except for use as permitted in a license distributed with a certain product or service or otherwise on a passwordprotected website for classroom use 73

74 Does Comparative Advantage Apply in the Face of Job Outsourcing? Address the plight of the displaced worker Generous severance packages, insurance programs Revamp the U.S. education system Prepare workers for jobs that cannot easily go overseas Revise the tax code Reward firms that produce jobs that stay in the United States © 2011 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be copied, scanned, or duplicated, in whole or in part, except for use as permitted in a license distributed with a certain product or service or otherwise on a passwordprotected website for classroom use 74

75 Does Comparative Advantage Apply in the Face of Job Outsourcing? Some U.S. Manufacturers Prosper by Keeping Production in the United States Increase the skill level Perform tasks more efficiently Cost-cutting programs to improve competitiveness Gained efficiencies Contracting single suppliers of packing materials and components © 2011 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be copied, scanned, or duplicated, in whole or in part, except for use as permitted in a license distributed with a certain product or service or otherwise on a passwordprotected website for classroom use 75


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