Presentation on theme: "Constitutional Conflict under Richard II Richard II (r. 1377-99) Extreme Measures 1386: “Wonderful” Parliament Impeachment of Favorites 1388: “Merciless”"— Presentation transcript:
Constitutional Conflict under Richard II Richard II (r. 1377-99) Extreme Measures 1386: “Wonderful” Parliament Impeachment of Favorites 1388: “Merciless” Parliament Lords Appellant in Charge Execution of Advisors (Treason) 1399: Royal Extortion & Fines Seizure of Gaunt’s Lands Bolingbroke’s Allies Parliament’s Deposition (Richard II’s Abdication) Personal Relationship b/w King & Parlia. Combative if Arbitrary Cooperative if Just Richard II, Westminster Abbey
Black Death & Religious Life in the 14 th Century Social & Economic Issues Demographics Agriculture & Commerce The Black Death Causes & Effects Long-term Impact The Great Revolt Religious Developments Widespread Lay, Clerical Piety Anticlericalism, Antipapalism Theological Divides National Consciousness & English Language Francophobia, War with France Economic & Religious Issues Popular Mysticism & Vernacular Bibles Black Death Spread
Social & Economic Issues Demographics 1300: c. 5 Million in England Cities (London), Towns (Norwich) Population Saturation Agriculture Food Supply (Bad Harvests, 1315-7) Strain on Livestock (Disease, 1319- 21) The Great Famine, 1315-22 Climate Change (Cool/Wet; Seasons) Commerce Wool Markets Declining Finished Cloth Markets Expanding Taxation Rates (War in France) “Death” atop a Lion and “Fames” (Famine) Below. Erfurt, Germany
The Black Death, 1347-9 Causes & Effects 3 Plagues: Bubonic, Pneumonic, Septicemic Black Rats, Fleas; Asia Merchant Ships, Spread from Italy Dorset, Aug. ‘48 London, Nov. ‘48; Norwich, Jan. ‘49 Towns Hit Hardest; Villages Emptying Out ‘48/9: 20%-40% English Decline Europe: 1/3 to 1/2 Long-term Impact Recurrences: ‘61-2, ‘68-9, ‘74-5, ‘78-9, ’90... Less Strain on Land & Food Labor Shortages; Rise of Yeoman Farmer Potential for Wages, Decline in Villeinage Mass Grave, Spitalfields (London)
The Great Revolt, 1381 Frozen Wages pre-Plague Nobility & Parliament; Class Conflict High Taxation (French War) “Poll” or Head Taxes Under Richard II May/June, ‘1381: Kent, Southeast Spread West and North Not Just Peasants (Some Gentry) Wat (Walter) Tyler & Priest John Ball When Adam delved & Eve span, Who then was the gentleman? Looting, Murder; Threat to Social Order Tyler’s End
Religious Developments Widespread Lay, Clerical Piety Church Attendance; Uncertainty Education of the Clergy Anticlericalism, Antipapalism Economic Factors (Land, Wealth) Legal Issues (Jurisdiction) Investment (Papal Favorites) Avignon Papacy, 1309-78; France Theological Divides J. Duns Scotus, William of Ockham Reaction vs. Aquinas Strong vs. Papal Authority Ideas of Conciliarism Papal Palace, Avignon
National Consciousness & English Language Francophobia War with France; English more Patriotic Parliament, Nobility, King Economic & Religious Issues William Langland, Piers Plowman Geoffrey Chaucer, Canterbury Tales Social Commentaries Popular Mysticism Julian of Norwich, Margery Kempe Personal Experience Vernacular Bibles John Wyclif: Theologian, Critic Eucharist, Purgatory, Ceremonies English Suitable for Bible Julian of Norwich, Revelations
Chaucer, General Prologue, 1-18 1 Whan that Aprill with his shoures soote : When April with its sweet-smelling showers 2 The droghte of March hath perced to the roote, Has pierced the drought of March to the root, 3 And bathed every veyne in swich licour And bathed every vein (of the plants) in such liquid 4 Of which vertu engendred is the flour; By the power of which the flower is created; 5 Whan Zephirus eek with his sweete breeth When the West Wind also with its sweet breath, 6 Inspired hath in every holt and heeth In every holt and heath, has breathed life into 7 The tendre croppes, and the yonge sonne The tender crops, and the young sun 8 Hath in the Ram his half cours yronne, Has run its half course in Aries, 9 And smale foweles maken melodye, And small fowls make melody, 10 That slepen al the nyght with open ye Those that sleep all the night with open eyes 11 (So priketh hem Nature in hir corages), (So Nature incites them in their hearts), 12 Thanne longen folk to goon on pilgrimages, Then folk long to go on pilgrimages, 13 And palmeres for to seken straunge strondes, And professional pilgrims (long) to seek foreign shores, 14 To ferne halwes, kowthe in sondry londes; To (go to) distant shrines, known in various lands; 15 And specially from every shires ende And specially from every shire's end 16 Of Engelond to Caunterbury they wende, Of England to Canterbury they travel, 17 The hooly blisful martir for to seke, To seek the holy blessed martyr, 18 That hem hath holpen whan that they were seeke. Who helped them when they were sick.
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