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ARAB EMPIRE UNDER THE ABBASIDS Chapter 7 LESSON SUGGESTIONS Peoples AnalysisAbbasid Empire Conflict AnalysisCrusades Change AnalysisPosition of women in.

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Presentation on theme: "ARAB EMPIRE UNDER THE ABBASIDS Chapter 7 LESSON SUGGESTIONS Peoples AnalysisAbbasid Empire Conflict AnalysisCrusades Change AnalysisPosition of women in."— Presentation transcript:

1 ARAB EMPIRE UNDER THE ABBASIDS Chapter 7 LESSON SUGGESTIONS Peoples AnalysisAbbasid Empire Conflict AnalysisCrusades Change AnalysisPosition of women in Abbasid society, India before and after Islamic spread Societal ComparisonAbbasid Empire and nomadic groups Document AnalysisIbn Khaldun on the Rise and Decline of Empires Dialectical JournalIslamic culture Inner/Outer CircleIn Depth: Conversion and Accommodation in the Spread of World Religions

2 Abbasid Dynasty ( BCE) Referred to as the Golden Age of Islam Broke down distinctions between Arab and non- Arab Muslims Moved caliphate capital to Baghdad (762 C.E) Became commercial center for trade between Europe, Asia, and Africa

3 Abbasid Dynasty ( BCE) Government Caliph became more of a king than a spiritual leader Diwan – council for advising caliph (did not speak directly with leader) Vizier – Prime Minister of the diwan

4 Abbasid Dynasty ( BCE) Important rulers (Caliphs) Abu al- Abbas – founder of the Abbasid Harun al-Rashid (r C.E.) – moved dynasty in “Golden Age” Al-Ma’mun (r C.E.) – built astronomy observatory in Baghdad and established foundation to translate classical Greek works

5 Golden Age of Islam Society Considered the most egalitarian of its time Ideal citizens – judges, merchants, and gov’t officials v. warriors Slavery was widespread – could not be Muslim. Most slaves served in the army

6 Golden Age of Islam Culture Arabs considered the heirs to remaining Greco-Roman culture Greek, Syrian, and Persian scientific and philosophical works were translated into Arabic and eventually found their way back to Europe Arabic became an international language

7 Contributions under the Golden Age of Islam Philosophy Preserved achievements of classical civilizations Ibn Rushd spread classical ideas from Spain back into Europe

8 Contributions under the Golden Age of Islam Science Accurately recalculate circumference of the Earth Studies eclipses

9 Contributions under the Golden Age of Islam Medicine Required doctors to pass difficult tests before practicing Set up hospitals with emergency rooms

10 Contributions under the Golden Age of Islam Medicine Ibn Sima ( C.E.) Compiled a medical encyclopedia that emphasized the contagious nature of disease Showed how disease could be spread through contaminated water Work became basis for medical textbooks used by medieval European universities

11 Contributions under the Golden Age of Islam Mathematics Improved upon works developed by Indian civilization under the Gupta Al-jabr – Persian mathematician whose work provided the basis for modern algebra

12 Contributions under the Golden Age of Islam Literature Qu’ran – regarded as greatest literary work Omar Khayyam Works popular in the west Wrote Rubaiyat and Tales from 1001 Nights (The Arabian Nights)

13 Contributions under the Golden Age of Islam Literature Sadi ( C.E) Rabe’a of Qozdar First female poet Wrote about suffering that love can bring Considered the Persian Shakespeare Wrote Rose Garden

14 Contributions under the Golden Age of Islam Literature Al-Mas’udi First great Muslim historian Wrote Meadows of Gold which provides for our knowledge of the Abbasid Dynasty

15 Contributions under the Golden Age of Islam Education Established universities and libraries in Cairo, Baghdad, Cordoba, and Timbuktu Emphasis on preserving, translating, and advancing Greco-Roman, Egyptian, and Indian knowledge

16 Contributions under the Golden Age of Islam Art and Architecture Blend of Arab, Turkish, and Persian traditions Used Byzantine knowledge to design domes and arches Calligraphy Beautiful writing and patterns to decorate building and art Forbidden to depict Muhammad and Allah’s creation

17 Contributions under the Golden Age of Islam Art and Architecture Dome of the Rock (691 C.E.) Touches both the Western Wall of the Jews and oldest Christian church Great Mosque of Samarra ( C.E.) Largest mosque ever constructed Covers 10 acres of land and contained 464 pillars

18 Contributions under the Golden Age of Islam Art and Architecture Mosque at Cordoba Located in southern Spain Contains 514 columns in work

19 Decline of the Abbasid Dynasty Internal problems Lack of spiritual authority weakened caliphate in competition with rivals Ex. Umayyad Dynasty in Spain Ex. Fatimid Dynasty (Shi’ite in Egypt (973 C.E.)

20 Decline of the Abbasid Dynasty Internal problems Wealth led to corruption Caliphs awarded positions to favorites Luxurious life enjoyed by caliph undermined strict moral code Changes within army and bureaucracy Shortage of Arabs for qualified positions

21 Decline of the Abbasid Dynasty Seljuk Turks Nomadic Group from Central Asia Converted to Islam and flourished as mercenaries for the Abbasids Moved into Iran and Armenia as Abbasid power weakened

22 Decline of the Abbasid Dynasty Seljuk Turks Took over Baghdad (1055 C.E.) Leader appointed himself as sultan (“holder of power”) Abbasid leaders maintained religious power in area Exerted military pressure on Egypt and Byzantine Defeat of Byzantine at Manzikert (1071 C.E) helped trigger rally for Crusades

23 Decline of the Abbasid Dynasty The Mongols Pastoral people who emerged from the Gobi desert in the 1200s C.E. Seized control over much of the known world Brother of Kublai Khan Seized Persia, Mesopotamia, and conquered Abbasid Originally led by Genghis Khan Helegu Brutally wiped out those conquered and their lands Eventually converted to Islam and blended with culture of area conquered

24 The Crusades – (Middle Eastern Perspective) Crusades (1096 – 1300s C.E.) Series of wars fought between Christians and Muslims over control of the holy land of Jerusalem Resulted from calls for help by Byzantine ruler Alexius I to Western Europe, after defeats from Seljuk Turks Claimed Muslims were desecrating Christian shrines

25 The Crusades – (Middle Eastern Perspective) Crusades (1096 – 1300s C.E.) Islamic world originally taken aback by crusaders Saladin (Salah al-Din) Claimed title of sultan for the lands of the former Fatamid caliphate Invaded kingdom of Jerusalem and destroyed Christian forces concentrated there (1187 C.E.) Showed tolerance to conquered Christians

26 The Crusades – (Middle Eastern Perspective) Crusades (1096 – 1300s C.E.) Results Displayed superiority of Muslim technology Displayed impact of Muslim culture on the Middle East Renewed trade and cultural contacts with Europeans Created a united Muslim group against Christians, created mistrust that survives today


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