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A04 7.9.11 THE ROAD TO REVOLUTION 1756-1775 Mr. Long Anderson High School Cincinnati, Ohio.

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Presentation on theme: "A04 7.9.11 THE ROAD TO REVOLUTION 1756-1775 Mr. Long Anderson High School Cincinnati, Ohio."— Presentation transcript:

1 A THE ROAD TO REVOLUTION Mr. Long Anderson High School Cincinnati, Ohio

2 TWO | REVOLUTIONARY AMERICA 4 | ROAD TO REVOLUTION, (Ch 4) A. Relationship with Britain B. The French and Indian War C. The Imperial Crisis and resistance to Britain D. Philosophy of the American Revolution 5 | THE AMERICAN REVOLUTION, (Ch 5) 6 | THE NEW REPUBLIC, (Ch 6)

3 Key Questions In 1755, although British North American colonists had areas of disagreement with the British government, most were proud citizens of the British Empire. Yet, within 20 years, the colonies were in open rebellion against Britain. In what ways did the French and Indian War alter the political, economic and ideological relations between Britain and its American colonies? In what ways did the French and Indian War alter the political, economic and ideological relations between Britain and its American colonies? What were the causes of the American Revolution? What were the causes of the American Revolution?

4 Relationship with Britain 1. Salutary Neglect 2. Tradition of Self-Rule Role of Colonial Legislatures Whig political ideas: representation, virtue 3. Colonial Officials 4. Colonial Religious Ideas Religious dissenters Great Awakening 5. Loyalty – to Britain? Other colonies?

5 FRENCH & INDIAN WAR

6 FRENCH & INDIAN WAR: Broader Significance Changed forever: Balance of power in North America Relationship between Indians and Europeans Relationship between Britain and its North American colonies

7 North America in 1754 European Spheres of Influence, 1754

8 FRENCH & INDIAN WAR: Causes History of Anglo-French Conflicts Immediate cause? (after 1749) Fort Necessity Geo. Washington 1755 – Fort Duquesne

9 Ben Franklin reps. From New England, NY, MD, PA A Albany Congress – failed: Iroquois broke off relations with Britain & threatened to trade with the French Albany Plan of Union

10 Gen. Edward Braddock evict the French from the OH Valley & Canada (Newfoundland & Nova Scotia) A Attacks OH Valley, Mohawk Valley, & Acadia. A Killed 10 mi. from Ft. Duquesne by 1500 French and Indian forces Br. Decides to Eliminate French Presence in North America Only Br. Success expelled France from Acadia. (Cajuns) Only Br. Success expelled France from Acadia. (Cajuns) British offensives, 1755

11 British March in formation or bayonet charge. Br. officers wanted to take charge of colonials. Drills & tough discipline. Unquestioned obedience. Colonists should pay for their own defense. Indian-style guerilla tactics. Col. militias served under own captains. No mil. deference or protocols observed. Resistance to rising taxes. Methods of Fighting: Military Organization: Military Discipline: Finances: British-American Colonial Tensions Colonials

12 A He understood colonial concerns. A He offered them a compromise: - col. loyalty & mil. cooperation-->Br. would reimburse col. assemblies for their costs. - col. loyalty & mil. cooperation-->Br. would reimburse col. assemblies for their costs. - Lord Loudoun would be removed. - Lord Loudoun would be removed. RESULTS? Colonial morale increased by William Pitt Becomes Foreign Minister

13 Anglo-American Conquest of New France,

14 Battle of Quebec, 1759

15 FRENCH & INDIAN WAR: Peace of Paris (1763) 1. France transferred Canada and all land east of Mississippi River (Ohio Valley) to Britain 2. France ceded New Orleans and all claims west of Mississippi River to Spain (Spain cedes Florida to Britain) 3. France granted some Caribbean lslands and all interests in India to Britain Note: What did France keep in N. America?

16 North America after 1763

17 Britain's American Empire in 1763 Britains American Empire, 1763

18 IMPERIAL CRISIS

19 RESULTS OF THE WAR: Imperial Crisis for Britain 1. Greatly larger colonial empire in North America 2. Huge war debt 3. Resentment toward colonists Need for reorganization of American empire George III (ruled ) King George III

20 1. It united them against a common enemy for the first time. 2. It created a socializing experience for all the colonials who participated. 3. It created bitter feelings towards the British that would only intensify. Effects of the War on the American Colonials

21 RESULTS OF THE WAR: Defending the Borders Pontiacs Rebellion (1763) Proclamation of 1763 Pontiacs Rebellion

22 Westward Expansion and Land Conflicts,

23 1. Sugar Act (1764) Direct system of taxation Strict enforcement of trade laws 2. Currency Act (1764) 4. Stamp Act (1765) 3. Quartering Act (1765) Permanent troop presence George Grenville RESULTS OF THE WAR: George Grenvilles Program,

24 Stamp Act Crisis Stamp Act Stamp Act (1765) Colonial opposition: First internal tax – £, not trade Not approved by assemblies Broad impact Postwar depression Sons of Liberty Stamp Act Congress boycott Stamp Act Repeal (1766) Declaratory Act Declaratory Act (1766)

25 Real Whigs Q-> What was the extent of Parliaments authority over the colonies?? Absolute? OR Limited? Q-> How could the colonies give or withhold consent for parliamentary legislation when they did not have representation in that body?? Theories of Representation

26 Townshend Acts ( ) Tax on imported paper, paint, lead, glass, & tea Purpose: pay for col. govt officials – not debt & armies Increased custom officials at Increased custom officials at American ports – estd Board of Customs in Boston. Colonial response: Colonial response: John Dickinson Letters from a Farmer in John Dickinson Letters from a Farmer in Pennsylvania (1768) nd non-importation movement: * Daughters of Liberty * spinning bees nd non-importation movement: * Daughters of Liberty * spinning bees Riots against customs agents: 4000 British troops sent to Boston. Riots against customs agents: 4000 British troops sent to Boston. Charles Townshend, Chancellor of the Exchequer

27 Toward Revolution

28 Boston Massacre March 5, p.m. Massacre? Paul Reveres engraving

29 The Boston Massacre: a different view The Boston Massacre: a different view

30 Why Boston?? Committees of Correspondence warn neighboring colonies about incidents with Br. warn neighboring colonies about incidents with Br. broaden the resistance movement. broaden the resistance movement. Sam Adams John Hancock Samuel Adams John Hancock (c )

31 Why Boston? "The Bostonian's Paying the Excise-Man, or Tarring and Feathering." Trade Trade Economic decline Economic decline

32 Providence, RI coast The Gaspee Incident (1772)

33 Tea Crisis: Tea Act (1773) British East India Co. British East India Co. British rationale & expectations British rationale & expectations Colonial response Colonial response Lord North

34 The Boston Tea Party (Dec. 16, 1773)

35 The Coercive Acts (January 1774) ( AKA the Intolerable Acts) Port Bill Port Bill - Boston Harbor Government Act Government Act - Town meetings forbidden, Govs Council Administration of Justice Act Administration of Justice Act - trials involving royal officials out of NE New Quartering Act New Quartering Act – uncompensated quartering of troops in colonists homes Colonial response? Why? Colonial response? Why? "The Bostonians in Distress" "The Bostonians in Distress" attributed to Philip Dawe, 1774

36 Tea Crisis Quebec Act (1774) Colonial response QUEBEC AREA ADDED TO QUEBEC

37 (First) Continental Congress (1774) 55 delegates from 12 colonies Purpose: response to Coercive & Quebec Acts Radical vs. moderate delegates Declaration of Rights and Grievances Continental Association Follow-up meeting British response: state of rebellion

38 British Troop Deployments, 1775

39 Lexington and Concord, April 19, 1775 Paul Revere William Dawes Minutemen Battle of Lexington Battle of Concord Battle of Bunker Hill Siege of Boston,

40 Lexington & Concord Lexington Green today The Old North Bridge Battle of Lexington

41 Revere Express (Revex) When it absolutely, positively has to get ¾ of the way there...

42 The Philosophy of the American Revolution Why did the Colonists revolt? Self-rule: Taxation without (actual) representation Protect Fundamental rights & liberties British corruption, aristocracy Was the Revolution inevitable? Could Britain have avoided it? Who was right?

43 TOWARD INDEPENDENCE

44 Second Continental Congress (1775) Olive Branch Petition Continental Army G. Washington Role in revolution Olive Branch Petition George Washington assumes command of Continental Army, July 1775

45 Thomas Paines Common Sense Thomas Paine

46

47 Sources Brinkley 10 th ed. Liberty! The American Revolution (PBS) mage_bank_US/1745_1776.html mage_bank_US/1745_1776.html Henretta 5e Roark, American Promise 3e from Divine, America Past & Present 7e Faragher, Out of Many, 3 rd Ed.;

48 EVENTS THAT LED TO THE REVOLUTION 3 Events/specific developments in the period that were most responsible for the armed rebellion in the British colonies


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