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THE ROAD TO REVOLUTION 1756-1775 Mr. Long Anderson High School Cincinnati, Ohio.

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Presentation on theme: "THE ROAD TO REVOLUTION 1756-1775 Mr. Long Anderson High School Cincinnati, Ohio."— Presentation transcript:

1 THE ROAD TO REVOLUTION 1756-1775
Mr. Long Anderson High School Cincinnati, Ohio

2 TWO | REVOLUTIONARY AMERICA
4 | ROAD TO REVOLUTION, (Ch 4) Relationship with Britain The French and Indian War The Imperial Crisis and resistance to Britain Philosophy of the American Revolution 5 | THE AMERICAN REVOLUTION, (Ch 5) 6 | THE NEW REPUBLIC, (Ch 6)

3 Key Questions In 1755, although British North American colonists had areas of disagreement with the British government, most were proud citizens of the British Empire. Yet, within 20 years, the colonies were in open rebellion against Britain. In what ways did the French and Indian War alter the political, economic and ideological relations between Britain and its American colonies? What were the causes of the American Revolution?

4 Relationship with Britain
“Salutary Neglect” Tradition of Self-Rule Role of Colonial Legislatures “Whig” political ideas: representation, virtue Colonial Officials Colonial Religious Ideas Religious dissenters Great Awakening Loyalty – to Britain? Other colonies?

5 FRENCH & INDIAN WAR

6 FRENCH & INDIAN WAR: Broader Significance
Changed forever: Balance of power in North America Relationship between Indians and Europeans Relationship between Britain and its North American colonies

7 North America in 1754 European Spheres of Influence, 1754
Henretta, America’s History 5e from European Spheres of Influence, 1754

8 FRENCH & INDIAN WAR: Causes
History of Anglo-French Conflicts   Immediate cause? (after 1749) Fort Necessity Geo. Washington 1755 – Fort Duquesne Pojer

9 1754  Albany Plan of Union Ben Franklin  reps. From New England, NY, MD, PA Pojer Albany Congress – failed: Iroquois broke off relations with Britain & threatened to trade with the French.

10 1755  Br. Decides to Eliminate French Presence in North America
Gen. Edward Braddock  evict the French from the OH Valley & Canada (Newfoundland & Nova Scotia) Attacks OH Valley, Mohawk Valley, & Acadia. British offensives, 1755 Killed 10 mi. from Ft. Duquesne by 1500 French and Indian forces. Pojer; Only Br. Success  expelled France from Acadia. (Cajuns)

11 British-American Colonial Tensions
Colonials British Methods of Fighting: Indian-style guerilla tactics. March in formation or bayonet charge. Military Organization: Col. militias served under own captains. Br. officers wanted to take charge of colonials. Military Discipline: No mil. deference or protocols observed. Drills & tough discipline. Unquestioned obedience. Pojer Finances: Resistance to rising taxes. Colonists should pay for their own defense.

12 1757  William Pitt Becomes Foreign Minister
He understood colonial concerns. He offered them a compromise: - col. loyalty & mil. cooperation-->Br. would reimburse col. assemblies for their costs. Pojer - Lord Loudoun would be removed. RESULTS?  Colonial morale increased by 1758.

13 Anglo-American Conquest of New France, 1754-1760
Henretta, America’s History 5e from

14 Battle of Quebec, 1759

15 FRENCH & INDIAN WAR: Peace of Paris (1763)
France transferred Canada and all land east of Mississippi River (Ohio Valley) to Britain France ceded New Orleans and all claims west of Mississippi River to Spain (Spain cedes Florida to Britain) France granted some Caribbean lslands and all interests in India to Britain Note: What did France keep in N. America?

16 North America after 1763 Divine, America Past & Present 7e

17 Britain's American Empire in 1763
Henretta, America’s History 5e from

18 IMPERIAL CRISIS

19 RESULTS OF THE WAR: Imperial Crisis for Britain
Greatly larger colonial empire in North America Huge war debt Resentment toward colonists Need for reorganization of American empire George III (ruled ) King George III

20 Effects of the War on the American Colonials
1. It united them against a common enemy for the first time. 2. It created a socializing experience for all the colonials who participated. Pojer 3. It created bitter feelings towards the British that would only intensify.

21 RESULTS OF THE WAR: Defending the Borders
Pontiac’s Rebellion (1763) Proclamation of 1763 Pontiac’s Rebellion Pontiacs – Pojer; Proclamation Line: Henretta, America’s History 5e from

22 Westward Expansion and Land Conflicts, 1750-1775
Henretta, America’s History 5e from

23 RESULTS OF THE WAR: George Grenville’s Program, 1763-1765
1. Sugar Act (1764) Direct system of taxation Strict enforcement of trade laws 2. Currency Act (1764) 3. Quartering Act (1765) Permanent troop presence Pojer; George Grenville 4. Stamp Act (1765)

24 Stamp Act Crisis Stamp Act (1765) Colonial opposition: Sons of Liberty
First internal tax – £, not trade Not approved by assemblies Broad impact Postwar depression Sons of Liberty Stamp Act Congress boycott Stamp Act Repeal (1766) Declaratory Act (1766) Image:

25 Theories of Representation
Real Whigs Q-> What was the extent of Parliament’s authority over the colonies?? Absolute? OR Limited? Pojer Q-> How could the colonies give or withhold consent for parliamentary legislation when they did not have representation in that body??

26 Townshend Acts ( ) Tax on imported paper, paint, lead, glass, & tea Purpose: pay for col. gov’t officials – not debt & armies Increased custom officials at American ports – est’d Board of Customs in Boston. Colonial response: John Dickinson “Letters from a Farmer in Pennsylvania” (1768) . nd non-importation movement: * “Daughters of Liberty” * spinning bees Riots against customs agents: 4000 British troops sent to Boston. Charles Townshend, Chancellor of the Exchequer

27 Toward Revolution

28 Boston Massacre March 5, 1770 9 p.m. “Massacre”?
chnm.gmu.edu/exploring/images/massacre2a.jpg Paul Revere’s engraving

29 The “Boston Massacre”: a different view
   (courtesy Granger Collection) The “Boston Massacre”: a different view

30 Why Boston?? Committees of Correspondence Sam Adams John Hancock
warn neighboring colonies about incidents with Br. broaden the resistance movement. Sam Adams John Hancock ADAMS - HANCOCK - Description: John Hancock. Copy of pianting by John Singleton Copley, ca , Credit: National Archives and Records Administration Samuel Adams John Hancock (c )

31 Why Boston? Trade Economic decline
Description: "The Bostonian's Paying the Excise-Man, or Tarring and Feathering." Copy of mezzotint attributed to Phillip Daw, Revolutionary War Credit: National Archives and Records Administration "The Bostonian's Paying the Excise-Man, or Tarring and Feathering."

32 The Gaspee Incident (1772) Pojer Providence, RI coast

33 Tea Crisis: Tea Act (1773) British East India Co.
British rationale & expectations Colonial response Pojer: British East India Co.: Monopoly on Br. Tea imports. Many members of Parl. held shares. Permitted the Co. to sell tea directly to cols. without col. middlemen and import taxes (cheaper tea!) North expected the cols. to eagerly choose the cheaper tea. Lord North

34 The Boston Tea Party (Dec. 16, 1773)

35 The Coercive Acts (January 1774) (AKA the “Intolerable Acts”)
Port Bill - Boston Harbor Government Act - Town meetings forbidden, Gov’s Council Administration of Justice Act - trials involving royal officials out of NE New Quartering Act – uncompensated quartering of troops in colonists’ homes Colonial response? Why? Description: "The Bostonians in Distress." Copy mezzotint attributed to Philip Dawe, 1774; Credit: National Archives and Records "The Bostonians in Distress" attributed to Philip Dawe, 1774

36 Tea Crisis Quebec Act (1774) Colonial response AREA ADDED TO QUEBEC
Pojer

37 (First) Continental Congress (1774)
55 delegates from 12 colonies Purpose: response to Coercive & Quebec Acts Radical vs. moderate delegates Declaration of Rights and Grievances   Continental Association Follow-up meeting British response: “state of rebellion” Radical delegates favored active resistance while moderates argued for conciliation. Declaration of Rights and Grievances - condemned Coercive Acts, denied Parliament's right to tax colonies, but promised obedience to the king   Set up Continental Association to prohibit importation of English goods and later the export of American goods to England. Agreed meet again in spring after a chance for British gov’t response (2nd CC) British response: Parliament declared the colonies in a “state of rebellion”

38 British Troop Deployments, 1775
Henretta, America’s History 5e from

39 Lexington and Concord, April 19, 1775
Paul Revere William Dawes Minutemen Battle of Lexington Battle of Concord Roark, American Promise 3e from Battle of Bunker Hill Siege of Boston,

40 Lexington & Concord Battle of Lexington The Old North Bridge
Lexington Green today    The Old North Bridge

41 Revere Express (Revex)
When it absolutely, positively has to get ¾ of the way there . . .

42 The Philosophy of the American Revolution
Why did the Colonists revolt? Self-rule: “Taxation without (actual) representation” Protect Fundamental rights & liberties British corruption, aristocracy Was the Revolution inevitable? Could Britain have avoided it? Who was right?

43 TOWARD INDEPENDENCE

44 Second Continental Congress (1775)
Olive Branch Petition Continental Army G. Washington Role in revolution Wahington: Olive Branch: Pojer George Washington assumes command of Continental Army, July 1775 Olive Branch Petition

45 Thomas Paine’s Common Sense
Thomas Paine

46

47 Sources Brinkley 10th ed. Liberty! The American Revolution (PBS) - Henretta 5e Roark, American Promise 3e from Divine, America Past & Present 7e Faragher, Out of Many, 3rd Ed.;

48 EVENTS THAT LED TO THE REVOLUTION
3 Events/specific developments in the period that were most responsible for the armed rebellion in the British colonies


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