Presentation on theme: "THE ROAD TO REVOLUTION 1756-1775 Mr. Long Anderson High School Cincinnati, Ohio."— Presentation transcript:
1THE ROAD TO REVOLUTION 1756-1775 Mr. LongAnderson High SchoolCincinnati, Ohio
2TWO | REVOLUTIONARY AMERICA 4 | ROAD TO REVOLUTION, (Ch 4)Relationship with BritainThe French and Indian WarThe Imperial Crisis and resistance to BritainPhilosophy of the American Revolution5 | THE AMERICAN REVOLUTION, (Ch 5)6 | THE NEW REPUBLIC, (Ch 6)
3Key QuestionsIn 1755, although British North American colonists had areas of disagreement with the British government, most were proud citizens of the British Empire. Yet, within 20 years, the colonies were in open rebellion against Britain.In what ways did the French and Indian War alter the political, economic and ideological relations between Britain and its American colonies?What were the causes of the American Revolution?
4Relationship with Britain “Salutary Neglect”Tradition of Self-RuleRole of Colonial Legislatures“Whig” political ideas: representation, virtueColonial OfficialsColonial Religious IdeasReligious dissentersGreat AwakeningLoyalty – to Britain? Other colonies?
6FRENCH & INDIAN WAR: Broader Significance Changed forever:Balance of power in North AmericaRelationship between Indians and EuropeansRelationship between Britain and its North American colonies
7North America in 1754 European Spheres of Influence, 1754 Henretta, America’s History 5e fromEuropean Spheres of Influence, 1754
8FRENCH & INDIAN WAR: Causes History of Anglo-French Conflicts Immediate cause? (after 1749)Fort NecessityGeo. Washington1755 – FortDuquesnePojer
91754 Albany Plan of UnionBen Franklin reps. From New England, NY, MD, PAPojerAlbany Congress – failed: Iroquois broke off relations with Britain & threatened to trade with the French.
101755 Br. Decides to Eliminate French Presence in North America Gen. Edward Braddock evict the French from the OH Valley & Canada (Newfoundland & Nova Scotia)Attacks OH Valley, Mohawk Valley, & Acadia.British offensives, 1755Killed 10 mi. from Ft. Duquesne by 1500 French and Indian forces.Pojer;Only Br. Success expelled France from Acadia. (Cajuns)
11British-American Colonial Tensions ColonialsBritishMethods of Fighting:Indian-style guerilla tactics.March in formation or bayonet charge.Military Organization:Col. militias served under own captains.Br. officers wanted to take charge of colonials.Military Discipline:No mil. deference or protocols observed.Drills & tough discipline. Unquestioned obedience.PojerFinances:Resistance to rising taxes.Colonists should pay for their own defense.
121757 William Pitt Becomes Foreign Minister He understood colonial concerns.He offered them a compromise:- col. loyalty & mil. cooperation-->Br. would reimburse col. assemblies for their costs.Pojer- Lord Loudoun would be removed.RESULTS? Colonial morale increased by 1758.
13Anglo-American Conquest of New France, 1754-1760 Henretta, America’s History 5e from
15FRENCH & INDIAN WAR: Peace of Paris (1763) France transferred Canada and all land east of Mississippi River (Ohio Valley) to BritainFrance ceded New Orleans and all claims west of Mississippi River to Spain (Spain cedes Florida to Britain)France granted some Caribbean lslands and all interests in India to BritainNote: What did France keep in N. America?
16North America after 1763Divine, America Past & Present 7e
17Britain's American Empire in 1763 Henretta, America’s History 5e from
19RESULTS OF THE WAR: Imperial Crisis for Britain Greatly larger colonial empire in North AmericaHuge war debtResentment toward colonistsNeed for reorganization ofAmerican empireGeorge III (ruled )King George III
20Effects of the War on the American Colonials 1. It united them against a common enemy for the first time.2. It created a socializing experience for all the colonials who participated.Pojer3. It created bitter feelings towards the British that would only intensify.
21RESULTS OF THE WAR: Defending the Borders Pontiac’s Rebellion (1763)Proclamation of 1763Pontiac’s RebellionPontiacs – Pojer; Proclamation Line: Henretta, America’s History 5e from
22Westward Expansion and Land Conflicts, 1750-1775 Henretta, America’s History 5e from
23RESULTS OF THE WAR: George Grenville’s Program, 1763-1765 1. Sugar Act (1764)Direct system of taxationStrict enforcement of trade laws2. Currency Act (1764)3. Quartering Act (1765)Permanent troop presencePojer;George Grenville4. Stamp Act (1765)
24Stamp Act Crisis Stamp Act (1765) Colonial opposition: Sons of Liberty First internal tax – £, not tradeNot approved by assembliesBroad impactPostwar depressionSons of LibertyStamp Act CongressboycottStamp Act Repeal (1766)Declaratory Act (1766)Image:
25Theories of Representation Real WhigsQ-> What was the extent of Parliament’s authority over the colonies??Absolute?OR Limited?PojerQ-> How could the colonies give or withhold consent for parliamentary legislation when they did not have representation in that body??
26Townshend Acts ( )Tax on imported paper, paint, lead, glass, & teaPurpose: pay for col. gov’tofficials – not debt & armiesIncreased custom officials atAmerican ports – est’d Board ofCustoms in Boston.Colonial response:John Dickinson “Letters from a Farmer inPennsylvania” (1768) .nd non-importation movement: * “Daughters of Liberty” * spinning beesRiots against customs agents: 4000 British troops sent to Boston.Charles Townshend, Chancellor of the Exchequer
29The “Boston Massacre”: a different view (courtesy Granger Collection)The “Boston Massacre”: a different view
30Why Boston?? Committees of Correspondence Sam Adams John Hancock warn neighboring colonies about incidents with Br.broaden the resistance movement.Sam AdamsJohn HancockADAMS -HANCOCK - Description: John Hancock. Copy of pianting by John Singleton Copley, ca , Credit: National Archives and Records AdministrationSamuel AdamsJohn Hancock (c )
31Why Boston? Trade Economic decline Description: "The Bostonian's Paying the Excise-Man, or Tarring and Feathering." Copy of mezzotint attributed to Phillip Daw, Revolutionary War Credit: National Archives and Records Administration"The Bostonian's Paying the Excise-Man, or Tarring and Feathering."
32The Gaspee Incident (1772)PojerProvidence, RI coast
33Tea Crisis: Tea Act (1773) British East India Co. British rationale & expectationsColonial responsePojer: British East India Co.: Monopoly on Br. Tea imports. Many members of Parl. held shares. Permitted the Co. to sell tea directly to cols. without col. middlemen and import taxes (cheaper tea!) North expected the cols. to eagerly choose the cheaper tea.Lord North
35The Coercive Acts (January 1774) (AKA the “Intolerable Acts”) Port Bill - Boston HarborGovernment Act - Town meetings forbidden, Gov’s CouncilAdministration of Justice Act - trials involving royal officials out of NENew Quartering Act – uncompensated quartering of troopsin colonists’ homesColonial response? Why?Description: "The Bostonians in Distress." Copy mezzotint attributed to Philip Dawe, 1774; Credit: National Archives and Records"The Bostonians in Distress" attributed to Philip Dawe, 1774
36Tea Crisis Quebec Act (1774) Colonial response AREA ADDED TO QUEBEC Pojer
37(First) Continental Congress (1774) 55 delegates from 12 coloniesPurpose: response to Coercive & Quebec ActsRadical vs. moderate delegatesDeclaration of Rights and Grievances Continental AssociationFollow-up meetingBritish response: “state of rebellion”Radical delegates favored active resistance while moderates argued for conciliation.Declaration of Rights and Grievances - condemned Coercive Acts, denied Parliament's right to tax colonies, but promised obedience to the king Set up Continental Association to prohibit importation of English goods and later the export of American goods to England.Agreed meet again in spring after a chance for British gov’t response (2nd CC)British response: Parliament declared the colonies in a “state of rebellion”
38British Troop Deployments, 1775 Henretta, America’s History 5e from
39Lexington and Concord, April 19, 1775 Paul RevereWilliam DawesMinutemenBattle of LexingtonBattle of ConcordRoark, American Promise 3e fromBattle of Bunker HillSiege of Boston,
40 Lexington & Concord Battle of Lexington The Old North Bridge Lexington Green todayThe Old North Bridge
41Revere Express (Revex) When it absolutely, positively has to get ¾ of the way there . . .
42The Philosophy of the American Revolution Why did the Colonists revolt?Self-rule: “Taxation without (actual) representation”Protect Fundamental rights & libertiesBritish corruption, aristocracyWas the Revolution inevitable? Could Britain have avoided it?Who was right?
44Second Continental Congress (1775) Olive Branch PetitionContinental ArmyG. WashingtonRole in revolutionWahington:Olive Branch: PojerGeorge Washington assumes command of Continental Army, July 1775Olive Branch Petition