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Windows Under the Hood.

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Presentation on theme: "Windows Under the Hood."— Presentation transcript:

1 Windows Under the Hood

2 The Registry Stores information on everything Windows
Found in Windows\System32\config if you want to know Rarely do we go straight to the Registry; use Device Manager, Control Panel Regedit or Regedt32 will get you to same place; Start | Run Be careful, you can break Windows easily

3 Registry Root Keys HKEY_CLASSES_ROOT; class objects, file associations, type of icon, program to open it HKEY_CURRENT_USER; current user preferences, desktop color and pattern HKEY_USERS; All users for the computer HKEY_LOCAL_MACHINE (HKLM); system’s non-user-specific configurations HKEY_CURRENT_CONFIG; hardware currently being used


5 Registry Edits Use either program: REGEDIT or REGEDT32
Make a backup before you change anything (File | Export) – use .REG extension Be careful of value types if adding key(s) Saves are automatic; no recovery from deletes

6 Types of Data in Registry
String value: any form of data Binary value: Ones and zeros Dword value: Binary but limited to 32-bits Qword value: Binary but limited to 64-bits

7 XP Boot Process System files start the boot process
NTLDR, boot.ini, and (ntbootdd.sys); on system partition Edit boot.ini from System | Advanced |Startup and Recovery Later files: ntoskrnl.exe, hal.dll, Registry, device drivers and winlogon.exe found in boot partition (Windows)

8 System Partition Files
NTLDR – MBR starts it; reads Boot.ini to find Windows installations Boot.ini uses Advanced RISC Computing (ARC) naming system to identify partitions; edit from System applet in Control Panel Ntldr starts protected mode and then calls on to find hardware

9 Vista/7 Boot 32-bit BIOS scans for master boot record; loads boot sector; bootmgr 64-bit UEFI loads bootmgr directly Bootmgr asks which OS to load using Boot Configuration Data (BCD) file. Edit with bcdedit.exe; then loads winload.exe; then the OS kernel Vista/7 boot files and the system files must all reside on the same partition

10 Processes, Services and Threads
Applications are processes loaded into RAM; have a window and end when you close the window Processes without need for a window are called Services

11 Task Manager One-stop place for Applications, Processes and Services
CTRL-SHIFT-ESC, CTRL-ALT-DELETE, Start|Run | taskmgr Click View | Select Columns for Process Identifier (PID) Can log off a user from Users tab if they did not

12 Task Manager, 2 Applications tab; shows all running applications; go here to force application to stop Processes tab; everything is a process; can end processes but for some, Windows won’t allow you to end them Performance tab; quick check of what is going on – CPU use and memory use Networking and Users tabs; not really exciting; can see how busy network is

13 Services Applet Control Panel |Administrative Tools | Services
Click on Services button in Services pane of Task Manager Run services.msc Can start, or stop, a service from here; Windows will not let you stop critical services This has services in alphabetic order where Task Manager does not

14 Performance Console Object is a system component that is given a set of characteristics and is a single entity Counters track specific information about objects Lots of counters; not many books on the Console, read over Michael’s section

15 Performance – Vista and 7
Reliability and Performance Monitor in Vista Performance Monitor in 7 Start with Performance Information and Tools in Control Panel Wander with it to get a sense of what it can tell you – we will do that in lab sessions

16 Honorable Mention Component Services: Allows sharing of objects between programs Data Sources: Open DataBase Connectivity (ODBC); sharing of databases among programs

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