3Rebellions and Decline Opium and RebellionBritish problems with China over trade limitationThe opium trade Promoted by Britain not ChinaReactions by China restricted Opium tradeLin Zexu (Lin Tse-hsu; ), 1839Opium War ( )Demonstrated the superiority of British firepower and military tacticsThe Qing, under military pressure, agreed to British demandsConcessions to Britain (Treaty of Nanjing, 1842)Open five coastal ports to British tradeLimit tariffs on imported British goodsCede the island of Hong KongGrant extraterritorial rights to British citizens in China
4Rebellions and Decline Taiping (T’ai p’ing) Rebellion, )Qing’s failure to deal with economic problems led to a peasant uprising which the Quig rulers suppressed in 1864.Under pressure from Britain, the Qing agreed to legalization of the opium trade, and the cession of the peninsula of Kowloon
5The Opium War ( )Early in the 19th century., British merchants began smuggling opium into China in order to balance their purchases of tea for export to Britain.In 1839, China enforced its prohibitions on the importation of opium by destroying at Guangzhou (Canton) a large quantity of opium confiscated from British merchants.Great Britain, which had been looking to end China's restrictions on foreign trade, responded by sending gunboats to attack several Chinese coastal cities.
6The Opium War ( )China, unable to withstand modern arms, was defeated and forced to sign the Treaty of Nanjing (1842) and the British Supplementary Treaty of the Bogue (1843).These provided that the ports of Guangzhou, Jinmen, Fuzhou, Ningbo, and Shanghai should be open to British trade and residence; in addition Hong Kong was ceded to the British.Within a few years other European countries were granted similar privileges.
7The Climax of Imperialism in China “Self-strengthening” but value systems remained unchangedRussia, France, and Britain penetrate ChinaSino-Japanese War,OVER Japan’s incursion into the Korean Peninsula (threatening China’s control over the area)China dealt a major defeatOpening the Door to China
8The Climax of Imperialism in China United States’ “Open Door” policy for equal economic access to the China marketGuarantee the territorial and administrative integrity of the Chinese EmpireBoxer Rebellion, 1900Boxers (members of a secret society in northern China)Attacked foreign residentsChina paid heavy compensation to the foreign governments
9Collapse of the Old Order Commission formed to study constitutional changes, 1905Election for a national assembly, 1910New provincial eliteRising rural unrestReforms do little for the peasants, artisans, miners, transportation workers
10Formation of the ‘Revive China Society’ Sun Yat-sen ( )Formation of the ‘Revive China Society’Revolutionary Alliance (unite radical groups from across China)Three People’s Principles of nationalism, democracy, and people’s livelihood
11Collapse of the Old Order Revolt of October, 1911Revolution or collapse of the old order?In failing to create new institutions to change society, the revolt of 1911 contributed to the collapse of the old older
12A Rich Country and a Strong State: The Rise of Modern Japan IsolationEmergent commercial and manufacturing centerTokugawa feudalistic system falling apartFactionalism and corruption plaguing the central bureaucracyAn End to IsolationRebel armies attacked shogun’s palace at Kyoto in 1868 and proclaimed the authority of the emperor who had agreed to end cooperation with the West
13The Meiji Restoration: A Revolution from Above Some historians argue it was an incomplete revolution because it did not end economic and social inequalitiesOthers argue it did put Japan on a path of economic and political developmentA “conservative revolution”Combination of kokutai and capitalism
14Meiji Restoration Transformation of Japanese Politics Abolish remnants of the old order and strengthen the executiveAbolish hereditary privilegesDevelopment of political partiesMeiji Constitution (named after the young emperor who had taken the name Meiji on ascending the throne in 1867) on western modelsMeiji EconomicsLand and tax reforms (3%)Japan’s industrial revolution
15Meiji Restoration Building a Modern Social structure Military structure (abolishing the old feudal army based on the traditional warrior class for a an imperial army based on universal conscription).EducationChanging cultureCivil Code, 1898Women
16Japanese Overseas Expansion during the Meiji Era
17Joining the Imperialist Club Conflict with ChinaKorea opens ports to JapanSino-Japanese rivalry over KoreaRusso-Japanese War, 1904Battle of Tsushima, 1905Admiral Togo and the Japanese fleetBattle of Port Arthur, 1905Korea annexed