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East Asia under Challenge

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1 East Asia under Challenge
History 381: Asian Experience East Asia under Challenge

2 The Qing Empire

3 Rebellions and Decline
Opium and Rebellion British problems with China over trade limitation The opium trade Promoted by Britain not China Reactions by China restricted Opium trade Lin Zexu (Lin Tse-hsu; ), 1839 Opium War ( ) Demonstrated the superiority of British firepower and military tactics The Qing, under military pressure, agreed to British demands Concessions to Britain (Treaty of Nanjing, 1842) Open five coastal ports to British trade Limit tariffs on imported British goods Cede the island of Hong Kong Grant extraterritorial rights to British citizens in China

4 Rebellions and Decline
Taiping (T’ai p’ing) Rebellion, ) Qing’s failure to deal with economic problems led to a peasant uprising which the Quig rulers suppressed in 1864. Under pressure from Britain, the Qing agreed to legalization of the opium trade, and the cession of the peninsula of Kowloon

5 The Opium War ( ) Early in the 19th century., British merchants began smuggling opium into China in order to balance their purchases of tea for export to Britain. In 1839, China enforced its prohibitions on the importation of opium by destroying at Guangzhou (Canton) a large quantity of opium confiscated from British merchants. Great Britain, which had been looking to end China's restrictions on foreign trade, responded by sending gunboats to attack several Chinese coastal cities.

6 The Opium War ( ) China, unable to withstand modern arms, was defeated and forced to sign the Treaty of Nanjing (1842) and the British Supplementary Treaty of the Bogue (1843). These provided that the ports of Guangzhou, Jinmen, Fuzhou, Ningbo, and Shanghai should be open to British trade and residence; in addition Hong Kong was ceded to the British. Within a few years other European countries were granted similar privileges.

7 The Climax of Imperialism in China
“Self-strengthening” but value systems remained unchanged Russia, France, and Britain penetrate China Sino-Japanese War, OVER Japan’s incursion into the Korean Peninsula (threatening China’s control over the area) China dealt a major defeat Opening the Door to China

8 The Climax of Imperialism in China
United States’ “Open Door” policy for equal economic access to the China market Guarantee the territorial and administrative integrity of the Chinese Empire Boxer Rebellion, 1900 Boxers (members of a secret society in northern China) Attacked foreign residents China paid heavy compensation to the foreign governments

9 Collapse of the Old Order
Commission formed to study constitutional changes, 1905 Election for a national assembly, 1910 New provincial elite Rising rural unrest Reforms do little for the peasants, artisans, miners, transportation workers

10 Formation of the ‘Revive China Society’
Sun Yat-sen ( ) Formation of the ‘Revive China Society’ Revolutionary Alliance (unite radical groups from across China) Three People’s Principles of nationalism, democracy, and people’s livelihood

11 Collapse of the Old Order
Revolt of October, 1911 Revolution or collapse of the old order? In failing to create new institutions to change society, the revolt of 1911 contributed to the collapse of the old older

12 A Rich Country and a Strong State: The Rise of Modern Japan
Isolation Emergent commercial and manufacturing center Tokugawa feudalistic system falling apart Factionalism and corruption plaguing the central bureaucracy An End to Isolation Rebel armies attacked shogun’s palace at Kyoto in 1868 and proclaimed the authority of the emperor who had agreed to end cooperation with the West

13 The Meiji Restoration: A Revolution from Above
Some historians argue it was an incomplete revolution because it did not end economic and social inequalities Others argue it did put Japan on a path of economic and political development A “conservative revolution” Combination of kokutai and capitalism

14 Meiji Restoration Transformation of Japanese Politics
Abolish remnants of the old order and strengthen the executive Abolish hereditary privileges Development of political parties Meiji Constitution (named after the young emperor who had taken the name Meiji on ascending the throne in 1867) on western models Meiji Economics Land and tax reforms (3%) Japan’s industrial revolution

15 Meiji Restoration Building a Modern Social structure
Military structure (abolishing the old feudal army based on the traditional warrior class for a an imperial army based on universal conscription). Education Changing culture Civil Code, 1898 Women

16 Japanese Overseas Expansion during the Meiji Era

17 Joining the Imperialist Club
Conflict with China Korea opens ports to Japan Sino-Japanese rivalry over Korea Russo-Japanese War, 1904 Battle of Tsushima, 1905 Admiral Togo and the Japanese fleet Battle of Port Arthur, 1905 Korea annexed

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