Presentation on theme: "The Society and Economy Under the Old Regime. Introduction Old Regime The life and institutions of prerevolutionary Europe Politically Rule of absolutism."— Presentation transcript:
Introduction Old Regime The life and institutions of prerevolutionary Europe Politically Rule of absolutism Economically Scarcity of food Agrarian society Undeveloped financial systems Socially Distinct social classes w/ certain privileges Little individualism
Introduction Old Regime fosters change in 18 th C Changes in farming Early industrial Rev. arrives Colonization of New World Expansion of business Preparation for wars
Major Features of Life Social Characteristics of Old Regime Aristocratic elites control privileges Established churches support state Urban workers organized into guilds Peasants pay high taxes
Major Features of Life Maintenance of Tradition Social Tradition was important Nobles held onto ancient privilege Peasants wanted restoration of manorial rights Economic Except for GB, every nation’s economy was agrarian. All gov’ts concerned about harvest
Major Features of Life Hierarchy Medieval rank became rigid during the century Laws regulated the dress of different classes-made social hierarchy easily visible Lack of “individual rights”, emphasis on “community” rights (nobility, church, guilds)
Aristocracy 1-5% of the population Wealthiest sector Separate legal bodies Land was source of power
Varieties of Aristocratic Privilege Aristocracy was a matter of birth and privilege British Nobility Smallest, wealthiest, and most socially responsible aristocracy in Eur. 400 families, eldest males sat in House of Lords, through corruption of electoral system Owned ¼ of all arable land Invested in industry and commerce immense political and social influence
Varieties of Aristocratic Privilege France Nobles of the Robe – Civil servants Nobles of the sword – Military French nobles exempt from: Taille: land tax Corvee: labor tax Vingtieme: rarely paid in full
Aristocratic Resurgence Nobles responded to centralizing efforts of monarchy by: 1.Preserving exclusiveness of titles 2.Reserve appointments to officer corps and gov’t bureaucracy 3.English Parliament, French parlement, German diets, Austrian estates, all challenge monarchy 4.Remain free from taxes; collect feudal dues
The Land & It’s Tillers 75% of population worked the land Peasants/Serfs Serfdom more common in E. Eur than W.Eur. In GB, justices of peace oversee courts Peasants have rights and Englishmen In E. Eur, landowners oversee courts Taxes were the burden of peasants/serfs on continent
The Land & its Tillers Obligations of Peasants FR – Feudal dues & corvees. Prus/Aust – Landowners have complete control The Robot Russia – “Soul” tax, forced labor. No legal recourse Similar to slavery
The Land & its Tillers Rebellions Russian czars degraded condition of serfs Pugachev – Leader of largest rebellion in 18 th C Catherine the Great had considered loosening restrictions on serfs before rebellion. Very few rebellions in W. Eur.
Land & it’s Tillers Aristocratic Domination of Countryside – England 1671-1831: English landowners had the exclusive legal right to hunt Poor excluded because elites believed hunting would undermine work Merchants excluded b/c Parl. wanted to demonstrate landed wealth over commercial wealth Gamekeepers and gentry benefited from laws Poaching and the black market: high demand for luxury meat leads to poaching for profit
The Agricultural Revolution Goal of peasants = maintain food supply Food prices rose steadily in 18 th C due to population growth Agricultural revolution was due to farming innovation
Agricultural Revolution New Crops/New Methods The Dutch were leaders in farming. Cornelius Vermuyden – land reclamation British Innovators Jethro Tull – seed drills and iron plow Robert Bakewell – animal breeding “Turnip” Townsend – crop rotation to restore nutrients Arthur Young – documented advances
Agricultural Revolution Enclosure Movement Replaces Open-Field s What were open fields? Village communities which farmed land using the 2 or 3 field system What was enclosure? Fencing of land to scientifically study land and increase production Who was responsible for enclosure? Large landowners pushed laws through parliament What was the impact of enclosure? Commercialization of agriculture
Agricultural Revolution Limited Improvements in the East Why did E. Eur not improve farming? No motivation. Landlords had tight control over serfs.
Agricultural Revolution Population Expansion - 18 th Century What were the reasons for population growth? Decline of death rate, fewer wars, fewer epidemics, better hygiene, ***Changes in food supply - Potato What was the impact of the population growth? New demand for goods, food, jobs, services Increase in migration Traditions of the Old Regime were tested
The Columbian Exchange From the New World to Europe Diseases: syphilis Plants: potatoes, corn, tomatoes, pineapple, tobacco, beans, vanilla, chocolate Animals: turkeys Gold and silver From Europe to the New World Diseases: small pox, measles, bubonic, plague, influenza, typhus Plants: wheat, sugar, rice coffee Animals: horses, cows, pigs, sheep, goats, chickens
The Industrial Revolution Began in the 2 nd half of the 18 th C Period of sustained growth Raised standard of living Was it an evolution or a revolution?
The Industrial Revolution Revolution in Consumption What factors increased demand for consumer goods? Prosperity, marketing/advertising, changes in styles to bring new fashions and inventions, rise of fashion publications made all aware of new styles. Industrial Leadership in GB What factors made GB the home of the I.R.? Free trade, good roads w/o tolls, abundance of coal and iron, sound banking, efficient and fair taxation, mobility of society
The Industrial Revolution New Methods of Textile Production What are textiles? Cloth, which became the first mass-produced items. How were they produced before the I.R.? The domestic system, a.k.a “the putting out system” How were they produced after the I.R.? In factories
Inventions John Kay – Flying shuttle – increased production of weavers. (1730s) James Hargreaves – Spinning Jenny – allowed more spindles of thread to be spun (1760s) Richard Arkwright (1760s) – water-powered device to produce cotton fabric
The Industrial Revolution The Steam Engine*** Who invented it? Thomas Newcomen engine (early 1700s) – very inefficient James Watt (1760s) – Made steam engine more usable Why is it important in the I.R.? It became the prime mover for all industry – shipping, trains, manufacturing
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