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The Empire Under Strain Chapter 4. Distance After Glorious Revolution (1688) England made no serious effort to tighten control over colonies After Glorious.

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Presentation on theme: "The Empire Under Strain Chapter 4. Distance After Glorious Revolution (1688) England made no serious effort to tighten control over colonies After Glorious."— Presentation transcript:

1 The Empire Under Strain Chapter 4

2 Distance After Glorious Revolution (1688) England made no serious effort to tighten control over colonies After Glorious Revolution (1688) England made no serious effort to tighten control over colonies Kings Control Kings Control –Colonies –i. New Jersey 1702 –ii. North and South Carolina 1729 –iii. Georgia 1754

3 Distance (cont.) Mercantilist Laws Mercantilist Laws –i. Navigation Acts –ii. restricting colonial manufactures –iii. prohibiting paper currency –iv. regulating trade

4 Loose Policy Loose Policy –Robert Walpole, PM, believed that little control was good –Few officials visit America –Colonial appointments came from bribery or favoritism First American Assemblies First American Assemblies –1750s claim right to levy taxes, make appropriations, approve appointments and pass laws –Colonists continue to think of themselves as loyal English subjects –England only tie

5 Improving Communication Improving Communication –Trade = roads and seaports –colonial postal service Still Weak Still Weak –1754 when faced with war against French and Indians British gov. allows delegates from Penn., Mary., NY, NE to meet in Albany –Ben Franklin proposes Albany Plan

6 Ben Franklin proposes Albany Plan Ben Franklin proposes Albany Plan –one general gov. –retain its present constitution –president general –It was REJECTED / Failure to agree.... Ben Franklin exclaims that colonists are a bunch of weak noodles

7 The War Before the War French and Iroquois French and Iroquois –French and English coexisted peacefully for nearly a century –French deep in continent –French Jesuits –French men married natives

8 Tensions arise Tensions arise –Louis XIV wishes to expand empire –Louisiana –Battle for N.A would be determined by which group could best win the allegiance of natives: English offered goods English offered goods French offered tolerance French offered tolerance

9 Iroquois Confederacy Iroquois Confederacy –five Indian nations –Unified Ohio Valley Ohio Valley –French claimed it –Indians lived there –English colonists begin to expand into it

10 More Drama in Europe! More Drama in Europe! –William of Orange takes over England –William is one of Louis XIVs biggest enemies Louis wants to expand and William opposes him (King Williams War ) –France = Catholic ; Spain = Catholic ; Spain + France = Powerful Allies

11 More Drama in Europe! Contd More Drama in Europe! Contd –Queen Anne (Williams sister in law) ascends the throne 1702 Queen Annes War Queen Annes War border fighting with Spanish in South border fighting with Spanish in South border fighting with French to Northwest border fighting with French to Northwest –France + Prussia vs. England + Austria = King Georges War Iroquois begin trading with English, thus English move west Iroquois begin trading with English, thus English move west French set up forts in response in the Ohio Valley French set up forts in response in the Ohio Valley

12 Phase One: French Indian War (aka Seven Years War) Phase One: French Indian War (aka Seven Years War) –Fort Necessity Debacle Fort Necessity Fort Necessity George Washingtons troops forced to surrender George Washingtons troops forced to surrender –Weak British Assistance General Edward Braddock failed in 1755 to stop a fleet of French reinforcements General Edward Braddock failed in 1755 to stop a fleet of French reinforcements ambush leaves Braddock dead and troops in disarray ambush leaves Braddock dead and troops in disarray –Indian Raids all Indian tribes (except Iroquois) allied with French all Indian tribes (except Iroquois) allied with French

13 Phase Two: French Indian War Phase Two: French Indian War –Intercontinental Fighting in Europe, W.Indies, and India Fighting in Europe, W.Indies, and India Principal Struggle in North America Principal Struggle in North America –William Pitt: America Under British Control impressment impressment housing/quartering housing/quartering

14 Phase Three: French Indian War Phase Three: French Indian War –Pitt agrees to reimburse the colonists for all supplies taken during the war –Returned control of military recruitment to the colonial assemblies Turning the Tide Turning the Tide –French were always outnumbered –Poor Harvests 1756 –Scalp bounties = brutal raids as counter attack Peace of Paris Peace of Paris –French give some West Indian islands –Gave Canada and all other French territory east of the Mississippi to Great Britain –Ceded New Orleans and all lands west of the Mississippi to Spain

15 Effects Effects –English Perspective Greatly expanded Englands territory in New World Greatly expanded Englands territory in New World Enlarged Britains debt Enlarged Britains debt Officials in England angry about colonists Officials in England angry about colonists Particularly bitter at colonists Particularly bitter at colonists –Colonists Perspective colonial assemblies colonial assemblies illegitimacy of British presence illegitimacy of British presence British perceived as arrogant British perceived as arrogant –Native perspective Ohio Valley natives: disastrous because allied with French = enemies with Britain Ohio Valley natives: disastrous because allied with French = enemies with Britain Iroquois: mistrust from British because of inaction during war Iroquois: mistrust from British because of inaction during war outnumbered and unorganized outnumbered and unorganized

16 From Rash Recovery to Rebellion King George III King George III –ascended to throne in 1760 –age twenty-two –suffered from bouts of insanity –nominates George Grenville PM in 1763 tried to control colonists tried to control colonists believed in limiting their freedoms believed in limiting their freedoms

17 King George III Contd King George III Contd –Marquis of Rockingham succeeds Grenville as PM in July 1765 tried to appease both English and Americans tried to appease both English and Americans got king to repeal Stamp Act got king to repeal Stamp Act kicked out of office kicked out of office –William Pitt becomes PM (again) 1766 old and mentally unstable old and mentally unstable Charles Townshend substitutes Charles Townshend substitutes CT dies in 1767 CT dies in 1767 –Lord North becomes PM 1767 repeals all Townshend Acts except tax on Tea repeals all Townshend Acts except tax on Tea

18 Post War Policies Post War Policies –Proclamation of 1763 (Grenville) forbid settlers to advance beyond a line drawn along the Appalachian Mts. –British Incentives: control west. movement of colonial pop. control west. movement of colonial pop. avoid conflict with Natives ($) avoid conflict with Natives ($) keep colonists near coastline for trade ($) keep colonists near coastline for trade ($) –Cherokee supported it, hoped to end white expansion west –Colonial Response: Whites continued to claim lands across the boundary line Whites continued to claim lands across the boundary line

19 Post War Policies Contd Post War Policies Contd –Sugar Act of 1764 (Grenville) British Incentives: British Incentives: –eliminate illegal sugar trade –British courts in America to try accused smugglers, Colonial Response; Colonial Response; –hampered trade –business, $, lost –anger towards outside control –Currency Act of 1764 (Grenville) stop issuing paper money and to destroy all money in circulation stop issuing paper money and to destroy all money in circulation

20 Post War Policies Contd Post War Policies Contd –Stamp Act of 1765 (Grenville) –imposed a tax on most printed documents in the colonies: newspapers, almanacs, pamphlets, deeds, wills, licenses –British Incentives: profit profit limit propaganda, communication limit propaganda, communication –Colonists Response: taxes prior were intended to raise commerce, this one raised money taxes prior were intended to raise commerce, this one raised money anger towards taxation without consent anger towards taxation without consent Patrick Henry Virginia Resolves Patrick Henry Virginia Resolves Stamp Act Congress meets in NY Stamp Act Congress meets in NY Sons of Liberty terrorize stamp agents Sons of Liberty terrorize stamp agents Riots Riots –British Response to Colonial Response (Rockingham): New govt convinces king to end the Stamp Act in 1766 New govt convinces king to end the Stamp Act in 1766 English powers demand a new law in response... English powers demand a new law in response...

21 Post War Policies Contd Post War Policies Contd –Declaratory Act 1766 (Rockingham) asserted Parliaments authority over the colonies in all cases whatsoever asserted Parliaments authority over the colonies in all cases whatsoever gave Parliament sweeping power gave Parliament sweeping power –Mutiny Act of 1765 (Grenville) colonists required to assist in the provisioning and maintaining of the army colonists required to assist in the provisioning and maintaining of the army colonial officials ordered to take up posts (no more substitutes) colonial officials ordered to take up posts (no more substitutes) restricted colonial manufacturing restricted colonial manufacturing British Incentives: British Incentives: –stop smugglers –keep colonial businesses from competing with English Colonial response: Colonial response: –trade limited, businesses go bankrupt –anger towards outside control –taxation without consent –British Response to Colonial Response.....

22 Post War Policies Contd Post War Policies Contd –Townshend Acts 1767 disbanded NY assembly disbanded NY assembly levied new taxes on different products levied new taxes on different products board of customs in Boston board of customs in Boston imposes a tax on tea imposes a tax on tea 1st Colonial Response: 1st Colonial Response: –Massachusetts Assembly circulates letter to all colonial govts urging them to stand against every tax –boycott British Response (North; Townshend dead): British Response (North; Townshend dead): –repeals all Townshend Acts except tax on Tea

23 The Boston Massacre (the snowball effect) The Boston Massacre (the snowball effect) –Townshend Acts had taken toll: redcoats everywhere redcoats everywhere presence resented presence resented –March 5, 1770 snowball fight turns into Boston Massacre killing 5 –Angry colonial propaganda by colonial writers fuel a fire (Samuel Adams)

24 The Boston Tea Party The Boston Tea Party –Strict enforcement of Nav. Acts + continued British presence = rev. sentiment –In RI angry residents board the British schooner Gaspee and set in on fire accused sent back to England for a trial accused sent back to England for a trial –1773 British East India Company had a surplus of Tea, in response British government passed the Tea Act (1773) gave BEI Company the right to export into the colonies without having to pay the tax that colonial merchants had to pay gave BEI Company the right to export into the colonies without having to pay the tax that colonial merchants had to pay allowed BEI Company to gain a monopoly on tea allowed BEI Company to gain a monopoly on tea

25 The Boston Tea Party Contd The Boston Tea Party Contd –Many colonists responded by not buying tea: boycott –Women were instrumental –Dec 16, 1773 in Boston Harbor –Bostonians refused to pay for the property they had destroyed Coercive Acts 1774 (North) Coercive Acts 1774 (North) –Closed the port of Boston –permitted royal officers to be tried in other colonies or in England –Colonist propaganda referred to these acts as the Intolerable Acts

26 Quebec Act 1774 (North) Quebec Act 1774 (North) –object was to provide a civil government for the French-speaking Roman Catholic inhabitants of Canada and the Illinois country –granted Political rights to Roman Catholics and recognized the legality of the Roman catholic Church –colonists believed that this meant the Pope and Holy Roman Empire would be allowed to take over the New World

27 Cooperation and War The First Continental Congress The First Continental Congress Sept. 1774, Carpenters Hall, Philadelphia Sept. 1774, Carpenters Hall, Philadelphia Major Decisions: Major Decisions: –plan for a colonial union under British Authority –statement of grievances –military preparation –boycotts

28 First Battles: Lexington and Concord For months, farmers and townspeople had been gathering ammunitions and training as minutemen... preparing to fight on a minutes notice For months, farmers and townspeople had been gathering ammunitions and training as minutemen... preparing to fight on a minutes notice

29 Why the Revolution started: where historians disagree Brinkley (Greenville upset almost everyone) v. Zinn (rich v. poor, or the elitist theory) Brinkley (Greenville upset almost everyone) v. Zinn (rich v. poor, or the elitist theory) Brinkley Brinkley –common grievances to Grenville policies –Time of economic depression –Cities? –Conserve liberties –Enlightenment

30 Zinn Zinn –Propaganda used by wealthy to deflect attention on England –Locke was a racist, an elitist, and supported child labor –Jefferson owned slaves until the day he died. –Language of Bible and D of I, were both used for propaganda purposes. –Financial move for the wealthy – Beard An Economic Interpretation of the Constitution


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