The Apollo 11 mission was the first manned mission to land on the Moon. Launched on July 16, 1969, it carried Commander Neil Armstrong, Command Module Pilot Michael Collins and Lunar Module Pilot 'Buzz' Aldrin, Jr. On July 20, Armstrong and Aldrin became the first humans to land on the Moon, while Collins orbited above. Moon Armstrong, Cod Lunar Modulemstrong and Aldri Lunar Landing
When does the Modality Principle NOT apply? When words are presented without any concurrent picture or other visual input If the material is familiar to the learner If the learner has control over the pacing of the material
Add narration, if: There are no pictures The learner has ample time to process the pictures and words The learner is likely to have difficulty processing spoken words
The following slides may or may not follow the Modality and Redundancy Principles. Decide whether each slide is a good example to follow or not and why.
The hot dog is a meal staple at America’s favorite pastime-the baseball game. Along with peanuts and sodas, hot dogs are sold by vendors throughout the stands during a ball game. Example 1
Example 1 is not a good use of the Modality and Redundancy principles, because it has both on-screen text and audio narration along with a graphic. It would be improved by either removing the on-screen text or the audio narration. See the next slide for a revised version.
Example 3 is a good representation of use of the Modality and Redundancy principles. On-screen text is limited to a title only, so the graphic, along with the audio narration, balances in the input channels.
Example 4 Redundant- 1. Exceeding what is necessary or natural; superfluous.2. Needlessly wordy or repetitive in expression: a student paper filled with redundant phrases.3. Of or relating to linguistic redundancy.4. Chiefly British Dismissed or laid off from work, as for being no longer needed.5. Electronics Of or involving redundancy in electronic equipment.6. Of or involving redundancy in the transmission of messages.
Example 4 demonstrates when the Modality and Redundancy principles do not apply. When learning a new term and having to remember the definition, it is okay to have on-screen text and narration to reinforce learning or for reference.
Now that you have seen the Modality and Redundancy Principles, take time to review them before you prepare your next multimedia presentation!
Image credits All images are from Microsoft Office 2008 online Clip-art Print Source Clark, Ruth Colvin, Mayer, Richard E. (2008). e-Learning and the Science of Instruction (2nd ed.). San Francisco: Pfeiffer - An Imprint of John Wiley & Sons, Inc.