Presentation on theme: "The Modality and Redundancy Principles EdTech 513 - Multimedia Dr. Schroeder by Kris Mesler."— Presentation transcript:
The Modality and Redundancy Principles EdTech Multimedia Dr. Schroeder by Kris Mesler
After viewing this multimedia presentation, students will be able to view pages and identify which examples correctly use the Modality and Redundancy Principles. Learning Objective:
The Modality Principle
Present words as audio narration rather than on- screen text
What does that mean?
When the graphic is the focus, use narration.
The Apollo 11 mission was the first manned mission to land on the Moon. Launched on July 16, 1969, it carried Commander Neil Armstrong, Command Module Pilot Michael Collins and Lunar Module Pilot 'Buzz' Aldrin, Jr. On July 20, Armstrong and Aldrin became the first humans to land on the Moon, while Collins orbited above. Moon Armstrong, Cod Lunar Modulemstrong and Aldri Lunar Landing
When does the Modality Principle NOT apply?
When words are presented without any concurrent picture or other visual input
It is okay to simply have on-screen text if you are reading what is on a slide and you do not have a graphic.
When does the Modality Principle NOT apply? If the material is familiar to the learner
Bananas are a great source of potassium!
When does the Modality Principle NOT apply? If the learner has control over the pacing of the material
When does the Modality Principle NOT apply? When words are presented without any concurrent picture or other visual input If the material is familiar to the learner If the learner has control over the pacing of the material
From Moreno and Mayer, 1999a. Graphics + Narration On-screen Text The Modality Effect
The Redundancy Principle #1
Do not add on-screen text to narrated graphics
The Borah High School boys soccer team defeated Timberline 3-2 on a last-second goal by Drew Smith over the outstretched hands of John Jones, Timberline’s goalie.
Learning Styles Hypothesis “Instruction should support both auditory and visual learning styles”
Which is better? Information Acquisition Theory Cognitive Theory of Multimedia VS More input is better! Keep input channels balanced!
Which is better? Information Acquisition Theory Cognitive Theory of Multimedia VS Keep input channels balanced! YES! More input is better!
From Moreno and Mayer, 1999a. Animation + Narration Animation + Narration + Redundant Text The Redundancy Effect
The Redundancy Principle #2
Consider adding on- screen text to narration in special situations
Add narration, if: There are no pictures
This is an example of text without graphics. It is okay to narrate this text when giving a presentation.
Add narration, if: The learner has ample time to process the pictures and words
Add narration, if: The learner is likely to have difficulty processing spoken words
Add narration, if: There are no pictures The learner has ample time to process the pictures and words The learner is likely to have difficulty processing spoken words
The following slides may or may not follow the Modality and Redundancy Principles. Decide whether each slide is a good example to follow or not and why.
The hot dog is a meal staple at America’s favorite pastime-the baseball game. Along with peanuts and sodas, hot dogs are sold by vendors throughout the stands during a ball game. Example 1
Example 1 is not a good use of the Modality and Redundancy principles, because it has both on-screen text and audio narration along with a graphic. It would be improved by either removing the on-screen text or the audio narration. See the next slide for a revised version.
Example 1- revised
Example 2 Relay Handoff
Example 2 is a good example of the Modality and Redundancy principles. The audio narration complements the graphic of the baton without overloading the visual input channel.
Color Your World Example 3
Example 3 is a good representation of use of the Modality and Redundancy principles. On-screen text is limited to a title only, so the graphic, along with the audio narration, balances in the input channels.
Example 4 Redundant- 1. Exceeding what is necessary or natural; superfluous.2. Needlessly wordy or repetitive in expression: a student paper filled with redundant phrases.3. Of or relating to linguistic redundancy.4. Chiefly British Dismissed or laid off from work, as for being no longer needed.5. Electronics Of or involving redundancy in electronic equipment.6. Of or involving redundancy in the transmission of messages.
Example 4 demonstrates when the Modality and Redundancy principles do not apply. When learning a new term and having to remember the definition, it is okay to have on-screen text and narration to reinforce learning or for reference.
Now that you have seen the Modality and Redundancy Principles, take time to review them before you prepare your next multimedia presentation!
Thanks for watching!
Image credits All images are from Microsoft Office 2008 online Clip-art Print Source Clark, Ruth Colvin, Mayer, Richard E. (2008). e-Learning and the Science of Instruction (2nd ed.). San Francisco: Pfeiffer - An Imprint of John Wiley & Sons, Inc.