Presentation on theme: "Subordinating Conjunctions that Introduce Dependent Clauses for Cause and Effect: When Because Since If Now That So that by Patricia Galien"— Presentation transcript:
Subordinating Conjunctions that Introduce Dependent Clauses for Cause and Effect: When Because Since If Now That So that by Patricia Galien http://pjgalien.wordpress.com/
An independent clause has a subject and a verb. is a complete thought. can stand alone as a sentence. A dependent clause has a subject and a verb. is not a complete thought. cannot stand alone as a sentence. A subordinating conjunction introduces a dependent clause.
When you studied time order, you learned about time clauses. Sometimes the subordinating conjunction when is also used to convey the meaning of cause and effect. When When my dog is happy, she smiles. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:A_Happy_Stella.jpg independent clausedependent clause cause effect My dog smiles when she is happy. effect cause independent clause dependent clause no comma comma
Like all dependent clauses, a clause that begins with the subordinating conjunction because can be at the beginning of the sentence or at the end. If it is at the beginning of the sentence, you need a comma. If it is at the end, you do not need a comma. Because dependent clauseindependent clause Because I didnt sleep well last night, I am tired today. I am tired today because I didnt sleep well last night. dependent clause independent clause cause effect cause effect no comma comma http://www.ineedmotivation.com/blog/wp-content/uploads/2008/04/tired.jpg
http://kh075.k12.sd.us/images/ABCBLOCK.jpg Because dependent clause Because my spelling is not good, I started a spelling list. I started a spelling list because my spelling is not good. independent clause dependent clause independent clause cause effect cause effect no comma comma
http://www.craigcalman.com/images/MaleNurseRiversring.jpg Since Identify the dependent and independent clauses. cause effect cause effect Since Roberto enjoys helping other people, he became a nurse. Roberto became a nurse since he enjoys helping other people. dependent clauseindependent clause dependent clauseindependent clause comma no comma Is this a dependent or and independent clause?
If http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/2/2a/ESB_Elevators.JPG If you take the far elevator, you can go to the top floor. The subordinating conjunction if can also convey the meaning of cause and effect. You can go to the top floor if you take the far elevator. effect cause
If If you study hard, you will do well in school. http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Kyrgyz_student.jpg You will do well in school if you study hard. cause effect
Now That http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Well-clothed_baby.jpg Now that you are wearing your hat and scarf, you will not be cold. You will not be cold now that you are wearing your hat and scarf. effect cause
So That http://i.ehow.com/images/GlobalPhoto/Articles/4784277/Step4_Full.jpg I took a keyboarding class so that I could write my papers for college more quickly. Oh, so thats how you learned to type so quickly. So that is sometimes used for cause and effect. Other times it is used to give an explanation. explanation cause effect