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IES Mariano José de Larra - Technologies UNIT 4

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Presentation on theme: "IES Mariano José de Larra - Technologies UNIT 4"— Presentation transcript:

1 IES Mariano José de Larra - Technologies UNIT 4
3/31/2017 UNIT 4 MATERIALS

2 Classification of materials
Can be Classified into two main categories: Raw materials: they are substances extracted directly from natural resources. They can be, according to their origin: Animal: wool, silk, hide Vegetable: wood, rubber, cotton Mineral: copper, gold, iron, coal, marble Technical materials: the raw materials are transformed by physical and chemical processes into technical materials, that can be used for making different products. E.g. plastic, paper

3 Raw materials

4 Materials or technical materials
Natural resources Raw materials Materials or technical materials Manufactured goods Tree Wood Plancks, plywoods Shelf, table… Sheep Wool Woolen threads Scarf, sweater… Petroleum well Petroleum Plastics Pen, bottle, toy

5 Technical materials

6 What have we learned? First think about the answers, then click the mouse
Unprocessed substances in their natural state. Raw materials Raw materials of animal origin: wool, silk, hides. Are classified into: Raw materials of vegetable origin: cotton, wood, cork, linen. Raw materials of mineral origin: marble, clay, iron. Material A processed raw material that is ready for making any type of product.

7 Properties of materials
Physical properties: related to how materials react to external stimuli, e.g. light, forces… Chemical properties: related to the changes in the chemical composition of a material because it interacts with other substances. Ecological properties: related to the impact they have on the environment.

8 Physical properties (1)
Electrical Thermal Optical Acoustic Magnetic Mechanical Others… Electrical properties: what happens when an electric current is passed through a material? Conductor: it transmits electricity. E. g. metals Insulator: it does not. E.g plastic, porcelain

9 Physical properties (2)
Thermal properties (1): what happens when a material is heated? Thermal conductor / thermal insulator: It conducts the heat (iron) / It does not (wood) Expansion / contraction: When the temperature increases /decreases, the material expands / contracts (iron in the railways). insulator conductor

10 Physical properties (2)
Thermal properties (2): Fusibility: it melts (=it changes from solid to liquid) when the temperature is increased. E. g. glass, some plastics, metals. Welding: it can be welded with a different material or with another piece of the same material (this property implies fusibility). E. g. some metals: iron, aluminium, gold.

11 Physical properties (3)
Optical properties: can you see through a material? Opaque: wood, metals Translucent: some types of glass, plastic… Transparent: glass, some plastics Acoustic properties: can you hear sound through a material? Acoustic conductors (iron) / acoustic insulators (cork, polyurethane) Magnetic properties: Does a material react to a magnet? Magnetism: some metals attract other metallic materials (iron)

12 Physical properties (4)
Mechanical properties (1): what happens to a material when external forces are applied? Mechanical strength: it depends on the type of force that acts upon them. There are several types of strength: Tensile strength Compressive strength Shear strength Torsional strength Flexural strength

13 Physical properties (5)
Mechanical properties (2): Malleability: it allows a material to be spread into sheets (malleable material). Ductility: it allows a material to be formed into filaments or wires (ductile material). Elasticity: it allows a material to return to its original form after a force that has changed its shape is removed. Plasticity: it allows a material to be permanently deformed.

14 Physical properties (6)
Mechanical properties (2): Hardness: what happens to a material when it is scratched by another material? This property is measured using the Mohs scale: The diamond is the hardest material. The softest one is the talc. Toughness versus brittleness: Does it break easily when it is hit? E.g. Iron Warning! Iron is tough, but not hard.

15 Other physical properties
Density: it is the quotient between the mass of an object and its volume. A block of lead has more density that a sponge of the same size. Porosity: capability of absorb or release liquids or gases, e.g. volcanic rocks. Permeability and impermeability: some materials allow liquids to filter through them (an earthenware), others don’t (glass, cork, plastics...)

16 Chemical properties Related to the changes in the chemical composition of a material because it interacts with other substances. Oxidation: it happens when a mineral reacts to oxygen in the air or water(e.g. metals). The reddish-brown substance produced is called rust.

17 Ecological properties
Materials are classified according to their impact on the environment: Recyclable materials: they can be reused. This avoid the accumulation of waste products. Eg: some plastics (bottles...) Toxic materials: they are harmful to the environment and can be poisonous for living things. (E.g. Mercury, in the batteries) Biodegradable materials: they decompose naturally and do not damage the environment. (paper, water-soluble plastics)

18 These are classified as:
What have we learned? First think about the answers, then click the mouse These properties relate to how the material reacts to external stimuli, e.g. electricity, light, heat or the applying of various forces. Physical properties: electrical, acoustic, optical, thermal, magnetic, mechanical, density, porosity, permeability and impermeability. Properties of a material These are classified as: Chemical properties: rusting or oxidation. Ecological properties: recyclable materials, biodegradable materials and toxic materials. Manufactured goods Products made by humans to help satisfy their needs and improve their standard of living.

19 Homework 1º JK: Activities 1 to 9, page 47 textbook
1º L: Activities 1 to 4 (corrected), 5 to 9 and 2 to 17 in the textbooks Optional: you can listen to the new words, paying attention to the pronunciation in this website: This presentation will be available in:

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