2Residential Exterior Doors 101A Presented By:Plastpro, Inc.5200 W. Century Blvd 9FLos Angeles, CA 90045Description:This course is designed to provide the student with the fundamentals of various phases of residential exterior door construction and application. Course covers the identification of door casings, hardware and related terminology.Provider No: K518Plastpro is a Registered Provider with The American Institute of Architects Continuing Education Systems (AIA/CES). Credit(s) earned on completion of this program will be reported to AIA/CES for AIA members. Certificates of Completion for both AIA members and non-AIA members are available upon request. This program is registered with AIA/CES for continuing professional education. As such, it does not include content that may be deemed or construed to be an approval or endorsement by the AIA of any material of construction or any method or manner of handling, using, distributing, or dealing in any material or product. Questions related to specific materials, methods, and services will be addressed at the conclusion of this presentation.The American Institute of Architects · Course No. 101AThis program qualifies for: 1 LU Hour
3Learning Objectives Objectives To develop basic knowledge of exterior door construction.To create a professional vocabulary concerning millwork.To give insight into the production of exterior doors and door units.To describe and identify various parts of residential exterior doors and hardware.
4Wood Doors and Components Stile and Rail DoorsStilesRailsPanelVeneerMullionDowel ConstructionMortice and Tenon Construction
5Wood Doors and Components Stile and Rail DoorsStilesRailsPanelVeneerMullion
6Wood Doors and Components Stile and Rail DoorsStiles- the vertical pieces of a door on both sides that connect rails together, enabling lock, latch and hinge mortising to be done.
7Wood Doors and Components Stile and Rail DoorsStilesRails – the horizontal pieces of a door connecting the stiles together. Located at the top, bottom and at intermediate points throughout the door.
8Wood Doors and Components Stile and Rail DoorsStilesRailsPanels – decorative components of a door which float between stiles, rails and mullions. Strictly for architectural detail.
9Wood Doors and Components Stile and Rail DoorsStilesRailsPanelsMullion – a vertical post or divider that rests between the rails of a door to contain the decorative panels
10Wood Doors and Components Stile and Rail DoorsStilesRailsPanelsMullionVeneer – a thin film or facing, adhesively bonded to a core, which makes up the exposed & decorative face of an assembly.
11Wood Doors and Components Stile and Rail Doors ConstructionDowel Construction – a construction technique that connects the stiles and rails with dowels.
12Wood Doors and Components Stile and Rail Doors ConstructionMortice & Tenon Construction – a door construction technique in which the stiles and rails are connected by inserting a tenon into a mortise.
13Wood Doors and Components Stile and Rail Doors ConstructionWood doors can be built to any dimension as the materials allow.Most doors created for the commodity market are built to call size. (ex: 3/0 x 6/8 door is 36” x 80”)
15Exterior Fiberglass/Steel Doors Fiberglass DoorsStilesRailsFiberglass doors also have stiles and rails to maintain a solid construction.
16Exterior Fiberglass/Steel Doors Fiberglass DoorsPolyurethane Core – the inside of fiberglass doors are filled with a polyurethane foam which expands to fill the area between the stiles, rails and skin.
17Exterior Fiberglass/Steel Doors Fiberglass DoorsLock block – rectangular block of wood (or other solid material) placed inside a door assembly at the lock edge into which the lock assembly is installed.
18Exterior Fiberglass/Steel Doors Fiberglass DoorsFiberglass Skin – SMC (Sheet molding compound) is a thermoset plastic sheet material made of glass fibers, resins, catalyst, fillers and pigments
19Exterior Fiberglass/Steel Doors Fiberglass DoorsDifferent manufacturers use different techniques to assemble the components to make the door.These manufacturers also use different materials to produce the stiles, rails and lock blocks. Even the core formulas are different.Most fiberglass doors are built to a nominal size for the commodity market (Ex: 3/0 x 6/8 is 35-3/4” x 79-1/4”)
20Exterior Fiberglass/Steel Doors StilesRailsCoreLock BlockSkinBuilt to Nominal Size
21Exterior Door Unit Components Door SlabFrameJambKerfDadoRabbet (Rebate)WeatherstrippingHead JambHinge JambStrike Jamb
22Exterior Door Unit Components Door SlabAlso called a leaf
23Exterior Door Unit Components FrameConsists of all of the components that surrounds the door slab to make a complete unit.
24Exterior Door Unit Components FrameJamb – the perimeter frame part of a door unit
25Exterior Door Unit Components FrameJambDado – a rectangular machined or sawn groove across the width of a component, cut so that a matching piece can be fitted into, to form a joint.
26Exterior Door Unit Components FrameJambRabbet (Rebate) – a groove or step cut along the length of a component that is to be joined to a corresponding tongue or ledge.
27Exterior Door Unit Components FrameJambKerf – a thin slot cut into an exterior jamb where weatherstripping can be insertedWeatherstripping – A component used to close a gap to reduce/eliminate air or water infiltration
28Exterior Door Unit Components FrameJambHead Jamb – the horizontal top frame member of a door unitHinge Jamb – the vertical frame member to which the hinges are appliedStrike Jamb – the vertical frame member that the lock latch will contact
29Exterior Door Unit Components Cont. Door SlabFrameHingeKnuckle & BarrelStrikeThreshold/SillCasingBrickmoldFasteners
30Exterior Door Unit Components Cont. Door SlabFrameHinge – an assembly of metal plates & a cylindrical pin which allows a door to rotate in its frame.
31Exterior Door Unit Components Cont. Door SlabFrameHingeKnuckle – a cut into the hinge which wrap and form a barrel/socket for a pin
32Exterior Door Unit Components Cont. Door SlabFrameHingeKnucklePin – The cylindrical rod that runs through the knuckles of the hinge to connect the two halves and acts as a pivot point.
33Exterior Door Unit Components Cont. Door SlabFrameStrike – a hole or recess in a jamb/frame for receiving a door latch
34Exterior Door Unit Components Cont. Door SlabFrameThreshold/Sill – horizontal part of a door unit, fixed to the jambs under the door slab, bearing on the floor
35Exterior Door Unit Components Cont. Door SlabFrameCasing – molding which accents or trims the edges of a door/window frame to the surrounding wallBrickmold – a molding used to trim the outside of an exterior door frame
36Exterior Door Unit Components Cont. Door SlabFrameFasteners – mechanical connectors that hold the door unit togetherScrewsNailsCorrugated nails
37Secondary Considerations of Door Units Door HandInswingOutswing
38Secondary Considerations of Door Units Door HandThe door hand is determined by establishing which side the strike is on when pulling the door leaf open to you.
39Secondary Considerations of Door Units InswingThe door leaf swings into the structure or room.OutswingThe door leaf swings out of the structure or room.
40Secondary Considerations of Door Units Cont. LeafActiveInactivePassiveSingleDoubleTripleQuad
41Secondary Considerations of Door Units Cont. Leaf – a term that can apply to a door or a hinge which defines the part of the assembly that swings on a pivot
42Secondary Considerations of Door Units Cont. Active – the hinged door leaf which is primarily operable
43Secondary Considerations of Door Units Cont. Inactive – a door panel fixed in its pane, usually non-operable
44Secondary Considerations of Door Units Cont. Passive – in a double door unit, the door which usually remains closed and fixed with locking mechanisms
45Secondary Considerations of Door Units Cont. Single Unit – a complete door unit with only one door leaf in the frame
46Secondary Considerations of Door Units Cont. Double Unit – a complete door unit with two door leafs in the frame. One active and one passive.
47Secondary Considerations of Door Units Cont. Triple Unit – a complete door unit with three door leafs. Any number of the leafs can be active, passive, or inactive.
48Secondary Considerations of Door Units Cont. Quad Unit – a complete door unit with four door leafs. Again, the leafs can meet any configuration.
49Secondary Considerations of Door Units Cont. Astragal – a ‘post’ attached on the latch side edge of one of a set of double doors, which covers the space between the doors when they are closed. It acts as a stop for the active leaf door.
50Secondary Considerations of Door Units Cont. Mullion (Mull) – a post or divider which runs from sill to frame top in a multi-panel door assembly
51Secondary Considerations of Door Units Cont. Sidelite – a fixed narrow panel, installed next to a door panel, for decorative purposes. (Sometimes acts as a passive leaf)
52Secondary Considerations of Door Units Cont. Transom – a framed assembly, usually glass, mounted atop a door unit
53Secondary Considerations of Door Units Cont. Cross-bore (Lock bore) – a large through-hole, near the edge of a door leaf which will house a cylinder latch or deadbolt latch.Backset - – the distance from a door edge to the center of a recess, hole or mortise (2-3/8” & 2-3/4” are standard).
54Secondary Considerations of Door Units Cont. Edge Bore – the hole bored through the edge of a door leaf to allow the latch hardware to pass through, into the jamb prep.Latch – usually spring loaded pin or bolt, which is part of the lock mechanism that engages a strike to retain a door closed.
55Secondary Considerations of Door Units Cont. Door Lite – an assembly of frame and glass panel, which when fitted to a door in a cut hole, creates a door with a glass opening.
56Industry TerminologyClear – natural wood products made of full- length pieces of wood stockFingerjoint – a way of joining short sections of board stock together, end to end, to make longer stock
57Industry TerminologyClad – to cover a material with a facing to work as protection against weathering and provide a finished appearance
58Industry TerminologyGlazing – the “elastic” material used to seal glass to a surrounding frameDouble glazed (Insulated) – outfitted with two panes of glass with a sealed airspace betweenTriple glazed – an insulated glass assembly made of three panes of glass with air spaces between the inner and outer thicknesses
59Industry TerminologyReveal – the offset or space between the edges of parts
60Industry Terminology Cont. Rough Opening – a structurally framed opening in a wall which receives a door or window unit
61Industry Terminology Cont. Shim – thin piece of material used between parts of an assembly, to change and fix the distance between parts when they are fastened
62Industry Terminology Cont. Glass bead (Stop) – a small molding applied to the perimeter of glazed openings to secure the glazing materials within a door
63Industry Terminology Cont. LowE glass – (Low emissivity) glass that has been coated with a thin layer of nearly clear material which absorbs and reflects heat & UV rays
64Industry Terminology Cont. Bevel – a machining angle other than a right angleMiter - an angled cut across the end of a lineal part, usually done to join with a similarly cut part at a corner
65Industry Terminology Cont. Cope (Joinery) – the cutting/shaping the end of a molding or frame component to neatly fit the contours of an adjoining member
66Industry Terminology Cont. Butt joint – a joint formed by square edge surfaces coming together
67Industry Terminology Cont. Mortise – a recess cut into the surface or edge of a part, usually for the purposes of housing hardware
68Industry Terminology Cont. Muntins (Grids / Grilles) – thin vertical and horizontal divider bars used to give a glass lite a multi-paned lookTDL – True Divided LiteThe glass is truly separated into individual piecesSDL – Simulated Divided LiteThe glass is one whole piece, but has the appearance of being multiple pieces of glass
69Industry Terminology Cont. Flush glazed – a type of glazed door which has its glass perimeter molding flush or subset down from the face of the surrounding door
70Industry Terminology Cont. MDF – generic name for material manufactured from lignocellulosic fibers (paper) combined with a synthetic resin and bonded together under heat and pressureHDF – a term to define MDF grades above 150 (hardness)
71Performance Terminology Air Infiltration – the accidental or unintentional introduction of outside air into a building or structureWater Infiltration – the accidental or unintentional introduction of outside water or water vapor into a building or structureR-value – the measure of thermal resistance; How well does this stop heat transfer (higher is better)U-value – the measure of heat transfer; How well does this conduct heat (lower is better)SHGC – (Solar Heat Gain Coefficient) the increase in temperature in a space as a result of solar radiation. It is a measurement of solar energy transmittanceSTC – (Sound Transmission Class) number rating system derived from measured values of sound transmission in decibels of a building element
72Performance Terminology Cont. NAHB – National Association of Home BuildersASTM – American Society for Testing & MaterialsNAMI – National Accreditation & Management InstituteNFRC – National Fenestration Rating CouncilUSGBC – U.S. Green Building CouncilLEED – Leadership in Energy & Environmental DesignAAMA – American Architectural Manufacturers AssociationCARB – California Air Resources BoardIBC – International Building CodeIECC – International Energy Conservation Code
73Troubleshooting Terminology Square – relative to doors: all four inside corners of a unit are at a true 90 degree angleLevel – relative to doors: the inner/outer face of the jamb legs are true perpendicular to the groundPlumb – relative to doors: the jamb legs are on the same plane, cross leg correction
74Troubleshooting Terminology Warp – any distortion in the plane of a door itself and not the relationship to the frameCup – a curvature along the width of the doorBow – a curvature along the length of the door
75Troubleshooting Terminology WarpTwist – a deviation in which one or two corners of the door are out of plane with the other corners of the door
76Troubleshooting Terminology Delamination – separation of plies of materials through a failure of adhesive bondSwelling – an expansion of a component of the door, usually due to water infiltration
77Standard Production Procedures Door HeightAn overall length should be established to simplify production (i.e. 79”, 79-1/4”, 78-15/16” )Lock HeightA location for the lock bore must be established. The measurement should be taken from the top of the door as the bottom may be trimmed.Hinge PatternA hinge location must be set to simplify production as it will be the same every time. Measure from the top of the door to the top of the hinge.
78Standard Production Procedures Door/Jamb Strike prepOnce the lock specifications are set, the jamb can be mortised and bored through correctly. The door can be bored through and face prepped for the lock and latchDoor/Jamb Hinge prepThe hinge mortise can be made on the jamb and door so that they will be in alignmentDoor Lite CutIf a doorlite is to be installed, the cutout would be made to the door prior to the door being installed in a frame
79What to look for Composite Rails Composite Stiles Full width and interlockingComposite StilesFull length and interlockingLVL Reinforced StilesFull lengthInterlocking Skin
80What to look for Protection Against the Elements No Rot No Wicking No OxidizingScrew holding capabilities3-Piece Mullion
81Thank You for Attending! This concludes the AIA-portion of the learning unit.To find our more about Plastpro please contact your local sales rep or visit us atStay Connected: